Last modified: 2011-06-10 by marcus schmöger
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Political Parties, Movements and Organizations
The new (1993) electoral law forced the creation of big political assemblages.
It is worth noticing that the assemblages and some new
parties have adopted symbols based on the Italian flag.
The Left assemblage's (for the 1994 elections) symbol was a white circle with red-white-green strips and the word "Progressisti" (Progressives). In the Middle assemblage symbol there are the red-white-green strips tied together.
The bigger (and newer) party in the Right Assemblage is identified by a variation on the Italian flag: the white strip is oblique and narrow and they add the words "Forza Italia" (Cheer up Italy).
I think all the assemblages use the national colors because:
Some aged parties too have used the national flag in
their symbols. Curiosly they are left or right oriented parties,
not middle. In the PCI's (Italian Communist Party) symbol there
was a national flag mostly hidden by a red sickle-and-hammer
flag: I suppose it meant the communist ideology superimposed over
the national identity. Today "Rifondazione
Comunista" (neo-communist party) still has the red flag
but the national one is represented as a half-circle in the
bottom of the symbol, therefore the superimposition is not so
evident. In the MSI's (neo-fascist party) symbol there was a
green-white-red flame. PLI (Italian Liberal Party) directly used
the national flag with the three letters P L I over the three
strips. Both of them are conservative parties: they used national
flag and colors to emphasize patriotism. In fact in Italian
culture patriotism is considered a conservative idea.
The current system of political parties in Italy is
complicated due to the great number of parties, their frequent
fissions and fusions and name changes, and the electoral system
urging the parties to form bigger coalitions and sub-coalitions
for the elections. I will try to give an overview of the current
(2001/2002) system of parties and coalitions.
There are basically five groups of parties in Italy:
1. The parties that came together to form the right-wing coalition "Casa delle LibertÓ" for the 2001 elections.
2. The parties that came together to form the left-wing coalition "L'Ulivo" for the 2001 elections.
3. The "Rifondazione Comunista" (Communist Refoundation).
4. Regionalist parties.
5. Other parties.
1. "Casa delle LibertÓ" (House of the liberties)
coalition This currently joins together five parties or
1.1. FI ("Forza Italia" = Go, Italy)
1.2. AN ("Alleanza Nazionale" = National Alliance)
1.3. "Lega Nord" (Northern League)
1.4. UDC ("Unione Democristiana e di Centro" = Christian-Democratic Union and of Center) sub-coalition, a.k.a "Biancofiore" The UDC is a sub-coalition of the "Casa delle LibertÓ" joining together parties claiming heritage of the old DC ("Democrazia Cristiana" = Christian Democracy). The more left-wing fission products of the DC belong to "L'Ulivo", sub-coalition "Margherita" (see below 2.2)
1.4.1. CCD ("Centro Cristiano Democratico" = Christian Democratic Center)
1.4.2. CDU ("Cristiani Democratici Uniti" = United Christian Democrats).
1.4.3. DE ("Democrazia Europea" = European Democracy)
1.4.4. PDC ("Partito Democratico Cristiano" = Christian Democratic Party)
1.5. NPSI or Nuovo PSI ("Nuovo Partito Socialista Italiano" = New Italian Socialist Party).
2. "L'Ulivo" (Olive tree) coalition This currently
joins together four parties and sub-coalitions. After the 2001
election the Girasole sub-coalition split into its constituents,
the SDI and the Verdi; recently several deputies of the UDEUR
left the Margherita group to form an own parliamentary group of
2.1. DS ("Democratici di Sinistra" = Democrats of the Left)
2.2. "Margherita" ("Democrazia Ŕ libertÓ - La Margherita" = "Democracy is Freedom - The White Ox-Eye). The Margherita is a sub-coalition of the "L'Ulivo" coalition joining together parties claiming heritage of the old DC ("Democrazia Cristiana" = Christian Democracy). The more right-wing fission products of the DC belong to "Casa delle LibertÓ", sub-coalition "UDC" (see above 1.4)
2.2.1. PPI ("Partito Populare Italiano" = Italian People's Party)
2.2.2. Democratici ("Democrats")
2.2.3. "Rinnovamento Italiano" (Italian Renewal), a.k.a. Liste Dini
2.2.4. UDEUR ("Unione Democratici per l'Europa" = Union Democrats for Europe)
2.3. "Girasole" (Sunflower) sub-coalition
2.3.1. Verdi ("Federazione dei Verdi" = Federation of the Greens)
2.3.2. SDI ("Socialisti Democratici Italiani" = Italian Democratic Socialists)
2.4. PdCI ("Partito dei Comunisti Italiani" = Party of the Italian Communists), a.k.a. Comunisti Italiani
3. "Rifondazione Comunista" (Communist Refoundation)
4. Regionalist parties
4.1. SVP ("SŘdtiroler Volkspartei" = South Tyrolian People's Party)
4.2. "Union Vald˘taine" (Aosta Valley Union)
4.3. "Partito Sardo d'Azione" (Sardinian Action Party)
4.4. "Fronte Nazionale Siciliano Sicilia Indipendente" (Sicilian National Front "Independent Sicily")
4.5. "Autonomisti Trentini" (Trentine Autonomists)
4.6. "Fronte Giuliano" (Julian Front)
4.7. "Liga dei Veneti" (League of the Venetians)
4.8. "Movimento per l'Autonomia della Romagna" (Movement for the Autonomy of the Romagna)
4.9. "Lega per l'autonomia lombarda" (League for the Lombardian Autonomy)
4.10. Lega Sud Ausonia (Southern League Ausonia)
4.11. "Lega Sannitica" (Samnite League)
4.12. "Liga Fronte Veneto" (League Front Veneto)
5. Other parties
5.1.1. PSDI ("Partito dei Socialdemocratici Italiani" = Party of the Italian Social Democrats)
5.1.2. "Radicali di Sinistra" (Radicals of the Left)
5.1.3. "Partito della Rifondazione Socialista" (Party of the Socialist Refoundation)
5.1.4. PU ("Partito Umanista Italiano" = Italian Humanist Party)
5.1.5. PUDI ("Partito Umanista Democratico Italiano" = Italian Democratic Humanist Party)
5.1.6. PMLI ("Partito Marxista-Leninista Italiana" =Italian Marxist-Leninist Party)
5.2.1. "Partito Liberale" (Liberal Party)
5.2.2. PRI ("Partito Repubblicano Italiano" = Italian Republican Party)
5.2.3. F.d.L. ("Federazione dei Liberali" = Federation of the Liberals)
5.2.4. "Radicali Italiani" (Italian Radicals), a.k.a. "Partito Radicale" or "Lista Emma Bonino" or "Lista Pannella")
5.2.5. "Lista di Pietro - Italia dei Valori" (List di Pietro - Italy of the Values)
5.2.6. "Partito Pensionati" (Pensionaries' Party)
5.2.7. "Verdi Federalisti" (Federalist Greens)
5.3.1. MSFT ("Movimento Sociale Fiamma Tricolore"= Social Movement Tricolour Flame)
5.3.2. "Movimento Italia Sociale" (Movement Social Italy)
5.3.3. "Fronte Sociale Nazionale" (National Social Front)
5.3.4. "Forza Nuova" (New Force)
- [fwa02], and earlier editions of it
- website of the "Camera dei Deputati", the lower house of the Parliament at <www.camera.it>
- website of the "Senato", the upper house of the Parliament at <www.senato.it>
- websites of the different parties (will be cited with the more detailed discussion of the party)
Marcus Schm÷ger, 16 July 2002
Additional sources I use for describing the Italian parties
(history and programmatics):
- Paolo Carusi (2001) I partiti politici italiani dall'UnitÓ ad oggi. Roma (Edizioni Studium).
- Simona Colarizi (1996) Storia dei partiti nell'Italia repubblicana. Roma (Editori Laterza).
- Girogio Galli (1994) I partiti politici in Italia, 1944-1994. Torino (UTET Libreria).
- A page with all the election emblems of the 2001 election <cedweb.mininterno.it:8890>
- Election results 2001: <cedweb.mininterno.it:8890/camera/B000000.htm>,<C000000.htm> and <senato/S000000.htm>.
Marcus Schm÷ger, 27 July 2002