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Mexico - New Spain: Idependence War, IV part (1811-1815)

José Ma. Morelos' revolt: July 1811-Dec. 1815

Last modified: 2005-09-02 by
Keywords: anahuac | morelos y pavón (josé maría) | vvm | bridge | aqueduct | bird: dove | virgin mary | aque victrix oculis et ungibus | bravo (nicolas) | victoria (guadalupe) |
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[1812-1815 flag]
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán,
August 2005.


See also:

Morelos' hosts flags

  1. Morelos' flags actually were not the first ones in featuring the Mexican eagle either crowned or crownless. Before Morelos, Spain-led troops formed by mestizos, natives and Spaniards, depicted the eagle and nopal in their standards during the Florida campaign (ca. 1550's) 1.
    Through all the Colonial age, during civic celebrations Mexico City inhabitants, both criollos (creoles) and mestizos, flown standards and banners featuring all the eagle, snake and the nopal 2.

  2. In the Independence war, considering it from 1808 to 1821, the first to use the eagle with military purposes was not Morelos' but Hidalgo's hosts 3.

  3. There are lots of standards and flags preserved in the Museo Nacional de Historia (Chapultepec Castle) who belonged either to Morelos or any of his generals. Such flags and standards, according its design, could be classified in two:
    All of them date from ca. 1811-1812. Banderas (SG 1990) shows only five flags and standards out of all preserved in that Museum 4. The flag above is a reproduction of one of them: The original flag measures 145 w x 189 h cm. The blue squares in the border hardly are visible. In addition to the arms depiction and motto, there appears the word, UNUM, meaning for "one" 4.

  4. OCULIS ET UNGUIBUS AEQUE VICTRIX: "By her eyes and claws equally victorious": It is first attributed to Morelos, when on Aug. 19 1812 in Tehuacán, he granted her army a flag 5. Alamán (1985) says that: Another motto specifically identified to Virgin Mary and also written on flags was taken from Psalm 147, 20: NON FECIT TALITER OMNI NATIONI, whose translation is:
    "[She -i.e.. Virgin Mary] has not done thus for any other nation" 7.

Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, August 2005.


Mariano Matamoros: Battalion of San Pedro

[Batallón de San Pedro flag]
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán,
August, 2005.

Lucas Alamán. Historia de Méjico. Jus. México. 1985. Vol. III. pp 149-150.
Carlos María de Bustamante. Cuadro Histórico de la Revolución Mexicana. FCE. México. 1985. Vol. II. pp 148-149.
Posted by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, August, 2005.


Other flags of the same period

Other revolutionary leaders created their own flags. Between 1812 and 1817, the troops of Nicolas Bravo and Guadalupe Victoria used a green-white-red one.
Santiago Dotor, 29 Dec 1998, summarizing from http://dyred.sureste.com/club/6febrero/24feb.htm


Erroneous reported flags

[Flag of the Batallón de San Pedro]
by Jaume Ollé, 04 Aug 1995

The Hidalgo revolt was continued by the Generalisimo don José María Morelos y Pavón who adopted a flag on 19th August 1812 with a bridge of three arches and after each arch a letter: V.V.M. (Viva la Virgen Maria, Long Live the Virgin Mary); in this flag appears for the first time an eagle resting on a nopal, and over the aqueduct, with an imperial crown and a legend in latin. On 6th September, 1813, the flag was used to proclaim independence under the name Kingdom of Anahuac. Abolished 5 of November of 1815 when the Morelos revolt ran out of steam. (Source: [bas])
Jaume Ollé, 04 Aug 1995, and Jorge Candeias, 27 Oct 1997, translating from La Bandera Mexicana website

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