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Manchukuo (Japanese Puppet State in China)

Mǎnzhōu Guó, 満州国, 滿洲國, 满洲国

Last modified: 2009-08-08 by
Keywords: manchuria | manchukuo | china | orchid |
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National flag, Civil ensign and war jack
[Flag of Manchuria, 1934-45]
image by Eugene Ipavec, 17 January 2007

Square national flag
[Flag of Manchuria, 1934-45] Proportions: 1:1; adopted 2 July 1934; depicted in reverse
image by Eugene Ipavec, 17 January 2007


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Second World War Japanese puppet State in Manchuria
(1934-1945)

In the 30ies and 40ies great parts of China were occupied by the Japanese. During this time several "puppet states" have been established. Manchuria or Manzhouguo (this is the "official" transcription of Chinese used in the PRC, in English it is often written Manchukuo), located in northeast China. It existed between 1932 and 1945. Officially it was an empire under the last Chinese emperor Puyi who used here the name Kangde.
Harald Müller, 11 December 1995


The flag: a yellow field (symbolizing unification), with four horizontal stripes in the upper right corner: red (bravery), blue (justice), white (purity) and black (determination).
Bruce Tindall, 9 December 1995


It's interesting that the Manchukuo flag is the Chinese republican one with the yellow taken out and turned into the field. All the references I've seen gave red as being for the Han Chinese. The usual interpretation from the Smith book quoted gives yellow as representing the Manchurians, which would explain its promotion in the Manchukuo flag.
Roy Stilling, 9 December 1995


The state ensign is the same except that instead of a canton the stripes cover the top 1/3(+/-) of the flag.
Nathan Augustine, 05 December 1995


There are plenty flag related interesting things on that period to read in a book called Chinese Civil Wars 1911-1949 edited by Osprey in the collection Men at Arms, number 306.

Well, I don't know about that book by Osprey, but I have a book called Flags of All Nations [smt47] by Smith & Taylor, 1947. This book shows the flag of Manchukuo in color. The flag's field is a mustard-color yellow. The text description calls the field yellow. I would call it mustard color (European mustard, not American, which is real yellow).
Philippe Bondurand, 06 December 1997


Manchukuo was established on 1 March 1932 and Henry Pu-yi was enthroned as Emperor on 1 March 1934. The country was still called as Manchukuo and sometimes people added Empire to the name.
Nozomi Kariyasu, 24 February 2007


Flag of Emperor Kangte (Puyi)

[Emperor's flag, Japanese occupation] image by Ivan Sache

I've seen another Mandchukuo flag. It was a plain yellow flag with a gold "orchid" flower (in French "orchidée") in its center. Maybe it was the imperial flag of Emperor Kangte?
Jerome, 06 December 1997


The flower is Chinese spring orchid which is not actually available in Manchukou but Emperor's favorite flower then.
Nozomi Kariyasu, 28 January 2005


Manchuria War Flag/Naval Ensign

[War flag of Manchuria]
image by Ivan Sache


Coast Guard

[Coast Guard flag]
image by Ivan Sache


Shipping Office

[Shipping Office Flag]
image by Calvin Paige Herring


Customs Vessel Ensign

[Manchoukuo customs ensign] Proportion: 2:3
image by Eugene Ipavec, 17 January 2007

A blue St Andrews on yellow field with red gate; adopted on 3 October 1934
Nozomi Kariyasu, 17 January 2007


Manchurian Army red cross flag

[Manchoukuo army red cross flag] Proportion: 1:1
image by Eugene Ipavec, 17 January 2007

A red thin cross on white; adopted on 2 July 1934. This flag was hoisted together with the square national flag
Nozomi Kariyasu, 17 January 2007


Postal flag

[Manchoukuo postal flag, 1935-1945]
image by Phil Nelson

The flag of Manchoukuo postal system. The postal insignia appears to have been adopted around 15 September 1935 and used until 1945. The insignia represents the Chinese word yu, using however, 2 of the 40 ideographs. In the insignia, the first character of the yu was turned 90 degrees and the second character was made symmetrical so that both the obverse and reverse were identical.
Phil Nelson, 26 January 2000

Manchuria National Labour Corps

Pre-1945

Manchuria National Labour Corps
image by Jaume Ollé

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