Last modified: 2008-01-26 by
Keywords: nationalsocialist | neonazi |
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I do not know very much about the AHF. They appear to combine the usual elements of political nationalism and cultural racism. Curiously though, they are vehemently anti-Christian, and want to restore the pre-Christian religions of northern Europe. They are not exclusively German, but rather Germanic. In addition to Germany, they have branches in Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Flanders, and the Netherlands. Note the strong resemblance to the flag of the Hitler Jugend, with the alghiz rune in place of a swastika.
A.H., 29 Oct 1999
The alghiz rune was used in Germanic alphabet from 3rd to 13th century, and had meaning of life and death, depending on which side was up.
Željko Heimer, 30 Oct 1999
This is one of two flags shown on the website [which one?] for the specifically-German branch of the Allgermanische Heidnische Front. The central image is the Eye of Wotan (Woden, Odin, etc.). Like the AHF, this flag also uses the algiz rune, in this case both upright and reversed.
A.H., 29 Oct 1999
<> both by Marcus Schmöger
Imperial Jack 1903-1919 and modern variant
The Reichskriegsflagge 1867-1919 is reported to be in use by German neonazi groups.
António Martins, 27 May 1998
The black-white-red colours of the German Empire 1871-1919 are prominently displayed [by the NPD and other parties]. These colours are displayed in party conventions and during demonstrations. NPD demonstrators wave different versions of black-white-red:
- plain black-white-red,
- black-white-red with a black Iron Cross (essentially the Imperial jack 1871-1919 and 1933-1935, also War Ensign 1933-1935, above left),
- a variant of the latter flag with a slimmer Iron Cross (above right) and
- black-white-red with black-red-gold in the canton (the German Civil Ensign 1919-1933).
There are certainly other variants of black-white-red (historical or not) that are produced by flagmakers for right extremists and used by them, for example with inscriptions.
Marcus Schmöger, 14 Aug 2000
It is my understanding that in Germany today, in addition to Nazi flags being banned, flags from the Kaiserreich era are also banned, notably the German naval ensign.
Anonymous, 4 Feb 2001
Issue 11 (12th March 2001) of the German weekly news magazine Der Spiegel, p. 76, showed this picture of a Weimar Republic flag on display at the shop of NPD party members in Ehringshausen (Hesse) - obviously because of the black-white-red colours. It is the state ensign 1926-1933.
Marcus Schmöger, 19 Mar 2001
Marcus Schmöger reported a photograph in the German weekly news magazine Der Spiegel, 2001, issue 1, p. 57, showing an NPD demonstration (photograph scanned here). There seems to be a flag at the bottom left of the picture, black field with two crossed red "things" (most possibly swords) fimbriated in gold (detail here).
Santiago Dotor, 26 Jan 2001
The same flag, plus one with a black-white-red canton, appears in this photograph scanned by Marcus Schmöger from issue 13 (26th March 2001) of the German weekly news magazine Der Spiegel, p. 23, showing an(other) NPD demonstration.
Santiago Dotor, 30 May 2001
This (...) black flag with a red hammer and sword crossing over each other (...) is an official NPD flag (...).
Hermann von Condé, 6 Feb 2004
This unidentified flag is not a flag of the NPD. Have in mind that demonstrations are not restricted to members of parties. Maybe it is a flag of another organization, but not of the NPD.
Winfried Krauß, 8 Feb 2004
I came across the "Unidentified Flag" in the German Neo-Nazi Flag section. In the picture shown, there is only a small portion of the flag which is visible. I wanted to send an example of what the flag probably is. I don't believe the flags actually belong to any certain organization.
BillyBoy, 23 Jul 2002
This flag: (hammer and sword/dagger crossed) refers to Otto Strasser's movement: "schwarz Front" (black front). He created this political group after leaving the nazi party in 1929. Hammer and sword (held by an eagle) is also the symbol of the "Hitlerjüngen": the nazi's youth organization.
Thomas Demada, 24 Feb 2004
The unidentified flag is a symbol for the national resistance (Nationaler Widerstand). It's not used by a party or organisation, just for the whole action called 'Nationaler Widerstand'. It's meant for a folk-unit out of soldiers and workers.
Stefan Maeder, 17 Dec 2005
The red hammer and sword on the black flag is a Neo-Nazi symbol. Recently it is used by decentral organized Neo-Nazi groups in Germany, and it symbolzies national resistance.
The black flag (without hammer and sword) was the flag of a social protest movement of German farmers in the 1920s. The black flag with the red hammer and the red sword was first used by Otto Strasser, who was one of the leaders of the left wing of the NSDAP in the 1920s. It symbolized the unification of workers and soldiers. In 1930 Otto Strasser left the NSDAP and founded the "Kampfgemeinschaft Revolutionärer Nationalsozialisten" (KGRNS).
In 1929 a similar flag became a flag, i.e. "Gaufeldzeichen", of the Hitlerjugend (HJ), although now with a black hammer and sword on a red flag. Already 1930 this flag of the HJ lost his acceptance and was by 1932 replaced by a flag showing a black eagle holding hammer and sword in his claws on a red and white flag.
After WWII Otto Strasser reintroduced the black flag with the red hammer and sword again as the flag of a political movement that never gained any importance. In the 1970s and 1980s the flag was reused by some Neo-Nazi movements. In the 1990s it became the symbol of national revolution. Nowadays it is still a Neo-Nazi symbol.
Nahne Bienk, 25 Aug 2006
The neonazi SRP (Sozialistische Reichspartei = Socialist Empire Party) was forbidden in 1952 by the Federal Constitutional Court. I had reported on the party and the flag already (10 Sep 2001), but without an image. My reconstruction of the flag (black eagle on red) is based on the eagle used by the SRP in party publications. I am still unsure about the exact pattern of the flag, though.
Marcus Schmöger, 28 Mar 2003
A very active and violent group was the ANS/NA (Aktionsfront Nationaler Sozialisten / Nationale Aktivisten = Action Front National Socialists / National Activists), banned in 1983. This group used two different flags: the one was a black-white-red horizontal triband with the party symbol in the center (a rune-like "S" in a rectangle divided diagonally black-white-red); the other one was an obvious variant of the swastika flag, called the "reverse swastika": a red flag with a white disk, in which appeared black the parts that had remained white in the original swastika (between the arms).
Marcus Schmöger, 28 Mar 2003
A neo-nazi flag with four black bars, in a windmill-like pattern, in place of the swastika, seems to have been rather popular in Germany in the 1980's.
I first saw its photo in a Croatian magazine named "Start", in an article about the neo-Nazism in Germany, in May or June 1987 (cannot remember the precise date and my later attempts to find a copy of that issue were unsuccessful). In September the same year, in a conversation with some people who lived in Germany, I learned that this flag was often used by the neo-Nazis. The people I talked with had attributed the flag to the National Democratic Party of Germany, which actually uses a completely different flag, but that does not exclude the possibility that this flag was brought to some of the party's rallies by some people who were not its
members, but wanted to give their support. The black bars pattern is interesting because it not only resembles the swastika, but also produces an optical illusion: the white areas between and around the black bars look as if they contain a "hidden" white swastika. This is visible even if drawn by hand and without encircling the bars - whoever I have shown such drawings to, has noticed this immediately. This looks like the bypassing the ban of displaying the swastika, as the banned symbol is just an optical illusion, although easily recognizable. I have not got any informations about later use of this flag, but I suppose that it was eventually banned and fell out of
use then, as it does not seem to be in use nowadays - at least, I found no such informations.
Tomislav Todorovic, 13 Mar 2006
Also banned in 1995 was the NL (Nationale Liste = National List), which used a black flag with white inscription "NL".
Marcus Schmöger, 28 Mar 2003
Back in October 2003, the german authorities cracked down on a neonazi group that was a bit more criminal than usual, going from the usual racist attack to actual acts of terrorism, involving bombs and stuff, and was called Combat 18. The piece of news in the Público newspaper came accompanied with a photo, showing one of the results of the bust: 4 revolvers and a flag of the group.
This flag features a light cross on dark, charged with a bizarre-looking skull in the center and the name of the group on the top.
Supposing the colours chosen by this neonazi group are the same as those used by other neonazi groups worldwide, which is a fair assumption, I suppose that the cross is white on red and the skull and letters are black.
An extra bit of trivia in the article mentions that this particular group was founded in the UK. They don't say how it ended up in Germany, if it branched or moved, so it is possible that it's an international bunch.
Jorge Candeias, 9 Nov 2004
AFAIK, this group belonged to the "Blood and Honour" network, also originating in Britain, and having branches in other countries as well, including Germany.
"Blood and Honour" in Germany used flags, but I am not aware of any specific flag used by Combat 18. The "flag" reported by Jorge seems to be something different. It looks rather rigid to me (wood or metal), and the inscription at the bottom ("Security") suggests that it might have been a shield used as a defensive weapon together with the other, offensive weapons.
Marcus E.V. Schmöger, 25 Nov 2004