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Subnational Flags of the German Empire 1870-1919 (Germany)

Last modified: 2011-08-20 by
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German States, alphabetically

Between 1864 and 1870, Bismarck led the German states in three wars, which resulted ultimately in the unification of the states into the German Empire, extending from west of the Rhine River to the eastern Baltic Sea by 1871:

  1. Alsace-Lorraine (Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine / Reichsland Elsass-Lothringen)
  2. Anhalt (Duchy of Anhalt / Herzogtum Anhalt)
  3. Baden (Grand Duchy of Baden / Grossherzogtum Baden)
  4. Bavaria (Kingdom of Bavaria / Königreich Bayern)
  5. Bremen (Free Hanseatic City of Bremen / Freie Hansestadt Bremen)
  6. Brunswick (Duchy of Brunswick / Herzogtum Braunschweig)
  7. Hamburg (Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg / Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg)
  8. Hesse (Grand Duchy of Hesse / Grossherzogtum Hessen)
  9. Lippe (Principality of Lippe / Fürstentum Lippe)
  10. Lübeck (Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck / Freie und Hansestadt Lübeck)
  11. Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin / Grossherzogtum Mecklenburg-Schwerin)
  12. Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz / Grossherzogtum Mecklenburg-Strelitz)
  13. Oldenburg (Grand Duchy of Oldenburg / Grossherzogtum Oldenburg)
  14. Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia / Königreich Preussen)
  15. Reuss-Gera or Reuss Younger Line (Principality of Reuss-Gera or Reuss Younger Line / Fürstentum Reuss-Gera oder Reuss jüngere Linie)
  16. Reuss-Greiz or Reuss Elder Line (Principality of Reuss-Greiz or Reuss Elder Line / Fürstentum Reuss-Greiz oder Reuss ältere Linie)
  17. Saxony (Kingdom of Saxony / Königreich Sachsen)
  18. Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach / Grossherzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach)
  19. Saxe-Meiningen (Grand Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen / Herzogtum Sachsen-Meiningen)
  20. Saxe-Altenburg (Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg / Herzogtum Sachsen-Altenburg)
  21. Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha / Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha)
  22. Schaumburg-Lippe (Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe / Fürstentum Schaumburg-Lippe)
  23. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt / Fürstentum Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt)
  24. Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (Principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen / Fürstentum Schwarzburg-Sondershausen)
  25. Waldeck-Pyrmont (Principality of Waldeck-Pyrmont / Fürstentum Waldeck-Pyrmont)
  26. Württemberg (Kingdom of Württemberg / Königreich Württemberg)
Source: States of 1897 in Arndt 1979.
Jan Kuhlmann, 5 December 1995


German States, by status

  1. Kingdoms:
    1. Bavaria (Kingdom of Bavaria / Königreich Bayern)
    2. Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia / Königreich Preussen)
    3. Saxony (Kingdom of Saxony / Königreich Sachsen)
    4. Württemberg (Kingdom of Württemberg / Königreich Württemberg)
  2. Grand Duchies:
    1. Baden (Grand Duchy of Baden / Grossherzogtum Baden)
    2. Hesse (Grand Duchy of Hesse / Grossherzogtum Hessen)
    3. Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin / Grossherzogtum Mecklenburg-Schwerin)
    4. Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz / Grossherzogtum Mecklenburg-Strelitz)
    5. Oldenburg (Grand Duchy of Oldenburg / Grossherzogtum Oldenburg)
    6. Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach / Grossherzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach)
  3. Duchies:
    1. Anhalt (Duchy of Anhalt / Herzogtum Anhalt)
    2. Brunswick (Duchy of Brunswick / Herzogtum Braunschweig)
    3. Saxe-Meiningen (Grand Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen / Herzogtum Sachsen-Meiningen)
    4. Saxe-Altenburg (Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg / Herzogtum Sachsen-Altenburg)
    5. Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha / Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha)
  4. Principalities:
    1. Lippe (Principality of Lippe / Fürstentum Lippe)
    2. Reuss-Gera or Reuss Younger Line (Principality of Reuss-Gera or Reuss Younger Line / Fürstentum Reuss-Gera oder Reuss jüngere Linie)
    3. Reuss-Greiz or Reuss Elder Line (Principality of Reuss-Greiz or Reuss Elder Line / Fürstentum Reuss-Greiz oder Reuss ältere Linie)
    4. Schaumburg-Lippe (Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe / Fürstentum Schaumburg-Lippe)
    5. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt / Fürstentum Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt)
    6. Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (Principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen / Fürstentum Schwarzburg-Sondershausen)
    7. Waldeck-Pyrmont (Principality of Waldeck-Pyrmont / Fürstentum Waldeck-Pyrmont)
  5. Free Cities:
    1. Bremen (Free Hanseatic City of Bremen / Freie Hansestadt Bremen)
    2. Hamburg (Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg / Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg)
    3. Lübeck (Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck / Freie und Hansestadt Lübeck)
  6. Other territories:
    1. Alsace-Lorraine (Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine / Reichsland Elsass-Lothringen)
Source: States of 1897 in Arndt 1979.
Jan Kuhlmann, 5 December 1995


Civil Flags or Landesfarben

The [civil] flags of German states were generally horizontal stripes [or Landesfarben]:

  1. Kingdoms:
    1. Prussia/Preussen: black-white (see also Prussian Provinces)
    2. Bavaria/Bayern: white-blue
    3. Saxony/Sachsen (Kingdom): white-green
    4. Württemberg: black-dark red
  2. Grand Duchies:
    1. Baden: yellow-red-yellow
    2. Hesse/Hessen: red-white
    3. Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz: blue-yellow-red and blue-white-red both reported
    4. Oldenburg: red St. George Cross on blue; also reported a red Scandinavian cross on blue.
    5. Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach/Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach: black-yellow-green
  3. Duchies:
    1. Brunswick/Braunschweig: blue-yellow
    2. Anhalt: red-green-white
    3. Saxony-Meiningen/Sachsen-Meiningen and Saxe-Coburg-Gotha/Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha: green-white
  4. Principalities:
    1. Lippe: yellow-red
    2. Reuss (senior and junior branches): black-red-yellow
    3. Schaumburg-Lippe: white-red-blue
    4. Waldeck and Pyrmont: black-red-yellow
  5. Free Cities:
    1. Bremen: eight red and white horizontal stripes, at the hoist chequered in two rows
    2. Hamburg: white castle on red
    3. Lübeck: white-red
Source: States of 1897 in Arndt 1979.
Jan Kuhlmann, 5 December 1995

Editor's note: see also the Explanation of Landesfarben.


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