Last modified: 2007-06-16 by
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located by Dafydd Young
The Welsh Tricolour ("Cymru Rhydd Diolch yn Fawr") is attributed to Rhys Gethin II. The Black Star represents unity and remembrance for all who have died fighting for Cymru (Wales). I have often seen the tricolour, but never as an actual flying flag, only as pictures.
Dafydd Young, 29 July 2002
A horizontal tricolour has apparently been used by various groups over the years as a Welsh republican tricolour.
Leighton Smart, 11 February 2003
I believe that the flag always bears a black star in the white stripe and I only know of the vertical version. The horizontal version could be confused with the Bulgarian flag (only changing the order of red and green) and I assume it is less used, at least without a star.
Jaume Ollé, 17 February 2003
I have never seen the 'Welsh tricolour' flag used on your website. The original Welsh tricolour which is occasionally used consists of a blue top, a white middle and a green bottom with the word Cyfiawnder (justice) on the white.
Muiris Mag Ualghairg, 18 April 2003
[Editor's note: see our page on Chartist flags.]
I have never seen these red, green, white flags with or without a black star - perhaps they are common in the north?
David Barry Lawrence,7 March 2004
The Welsh republican flag originated with the first Welsh Republican Movement (1950's) this flag is the usual Republican Tricolour. Welsh Republican Flag Colours are left to right Green, Red and White, It does not have a black star on it this is a 2002 innovation by Cymru 1400 USA. Unfortunately for a variety of reasons historically Welsh Republicanism was an extremely late development only originating in the 1950's. On 22 February 1797 a French expeditionary force landed at Garreg Gwasted near Fishguard sadly they were greeted by an hostile 'Crown & Country Brit Mob' and not a 'United Welshman Movement'. Wales then was not as Ireland seething with nationalist resentment to English colonial rule to compensate for this in present times some Welsh patriots of a "Republican persuasion" regard 22 February as a might have been "Welsh Republic Day".
G. Gruffydd, 2 March 2005
The Welsh Tricolour, long associated with nationalism and republicanism, was seen proudly and defiantly flying during the royal opening of the new home for the National Assembly for Wales 'The Senedd' yesterday (1 March 2006 St Davids Day). The flag was the more traditional vertical striped green, red and white (without the black star).
Meic Crahart, 2 March 2006
In "The Young Republicans" by "Gweriniaethwr" isbn 0 86381 362 3 , I read that at the founding conference on 24th and 25th September 1949 in Neath "The Welsh Republican Movement adopted as its political emblem a tricolour flag of red, white and green". Also, on the 24th Nov 1949 Joyce Ann Williams interrupted the proceedings of the House of Commons during the "Welsh Debate" whilst displaying a "red, green and white flag". In each case I presume that this might be the green, red and white tricolour newly invented but unfamiliar to the reporters ?
David B. Lawrence, 17 November 2006
photo by David Lawrence, 15 December 2006
At the Cilmeri rally, which celebrates the death of the last prince of Wales, or alternatively commemorates the end of Welsh independence in 1282, a variety of people turn up for various reasons and contribute different elements to the days events. Welsh flags of various sorts are in evidence, and I asked especially to take a photo of the Croes Naid (purple with gold ring cross on it) which they told me was Llewelyn's battle flag (?) and an unspecified green flag with both the stylised white eagle and red dragon on it.
David B. Lawrence, 15 December 2006
image by António Martins-Tuválkin, 16 May 2007
Gethin kindly sent me a picture, a flag which features "The Awen" a symbol devised by Iolo Morgannwg and named for "The Muse" and used in his mystical bardic alphabet where each letter had layers of meaning, e.g., "awen" also means "rein" and therefore implies "government". Iolo cooked up a heady mix of democratic politics and neo-pagan deism, highly relevant in his day when the government and the church were both part of the same establishment that radicals were opposed to. Thus, given that this symbol is also called "Y Nod Cyfrin" (which could be translated as "the secret mark" or even "the subtle note", as in the sense of writing cryptically * ) there is reason to believe that this was another one of those covert signs used by Welsh republicans during "The English Terror" circa 1800 (e.g., by drawing it in the road dust with a stick or toe, or perhaps by holding the hand pointing covertly downwards with the middle three fingers spread, like an inverted boy-scout salute. ).
Gethin tells me that this design was created by Tony Lewis and the flag above was made in the 1970's. Tony Lewis was the Patriotic Front president, and this organisation basically included all of the usual suspects and flourished circa 1965 - 1970. The black section of the flag seems to me reminiscent of the Free Wales Army flag, with a gold "Y Nodyn" as Gethin has called it in his email to me (he says that originally Iolo's was red).
*again Gethin's variation in spelling is suggestive of Iolo's bardic politics' having many layers of subtle meaning e.g. 'nodyn/nod/-au' = note, mark, 'the tokens'. Gethin says that originally Iolo's 'tokens' were red and that the three strokes represent Love, Truth and Justice (and Daf told me that they represent something similar in that they declare the aspects of Iolo's Deity, a sort of 'people's god' built out of a democratic trinitarianism in which he challenged the corruption of British christianity). Gethin also tells me that this black part of the flag was used as an armband, i.e. it actually represents the Patriotic Front as an organisation.
The remainder of this flag is a triband version of the tricolour adopted by the Welsh Republican Movement in 1949 (presumably because the triband associated with early 19c Welsh republicanism had been adopted by Hungary in 1945 - in fact Hungarian republicans had already used it in before in 1848, so this might also explain why the violet Trilliw appeared in later 19c Wales).
David B. Lawrence, 19 February 2007
See also: http://www.gorsethkernow.org.uk/english/ceremony.htm
António Martins-Tuválkin, 21 February 2007
image by Chris Fear, 1 July 2005
The black flag with the red dragon is the banner of Cymru 1400 (The Welsh Republican Movement).
"Moz", 17 November 2003
During the 1960's there was an attempt to have Plaid Cymru adopt a 'Nationalist Flag'. It was not officially accepted and never made much headway. I have seen, many years ago, a design for a "Welsh Separatist Flag" based on the American confederate flag but with a green background, white St Andrews Cross (as confederate flag) and 13 red stars (representing the 13 old Welsh counties). I have not however, seen this in use other than one person's personal home flag.
G. Gruffydd, 2 March 2005