Last modified: 2011-07-08 by andrew weeks
Keywords: jerusalem | israel | yerushalayyim | iriyat yerushalayyim | al-quds | coat of arms (lion: blue) | text: hebrew (blue) |
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image by Eugene Ipavec, 5 September 2007
Coat-of-arms adopted 13th November 1958
The lion (...) is the symbol of Yehuda (Judah) Tribe.
Dov Gutterman, 18 November 1998
I have lived in Jerusalem, a few blocks away from City Hall, for a number of years. The charge and its inscription are yellow (or gold) and blue (or "indigo"), like the two horizontal stripes, and definitely not black. The inscription is merely the city's name in Hebrew.
The brickwork pattern represents the Kotel or Western Wall (of the Temple Mount). The fructed olive branches are, as in the national emblem and presidential standard, indicative of peace and goodwill. Yellow and white are said to represent the gold and silver vessels used in the Holy Temple of King Solomon on Mount Moriah. The color blue presumably symbolizes the tekhelet, a special dye used for tsitsiyot (fringes or tassels) on the talit (prayer shawl) and beged shel arba kanfot (four-cornered garment). There are other valid interpretations as well.
I am afraid that, for the moment, the source of this explanation is no better than the common knowledge. This does not necessarily make it hearsay, though. I suppose that just about any Jerusalemite who would claim to know the flag's significance will give the same reckoning I did. In truth, I have no doubt one could find any number of glossy coffee-table editions available in Jerusalem bookstores to corroborate that account, but if you were to question the authors, they would likely give you the same source I just did. In any event, the interpretation is not, to my knowledge, in dispute. There may well be some circles who find its symbolism somehow objectionable and offer substitutes of their own invention. So far as the actual devices on the flag are concerned, I can say that a careful examination of the wall in the flag will show that it is identical to the Western Wall. Yes, there is a unique pattern to the bricks.
M. Breier, 18-20 June 1999
The Jerusalem emblem was adopted in 1949 following an official competition, similar to the one for the national flag and emblem. A few years ago the City Gallery of Jerusalem (a fancy name for a one-room gallery near the City Hall) held an exhibition on the subject, showing some of the proposals. They also published a booklet, which I was lucky to obtain but since traded it and kept only a photocopy. The information there supports the explanation given by M. Breier.
Among the 1949 proposals there was one that was a truly heraldic achievement: a shield with the five Crusader crosses, lions as supporters and a lion crest. Also a motto in Latin Nisi Dominus Custodierit Civitatem. The booklet claims that this proposal, by Ronald Bretton of Halifax, England, is an expression of the symbolic meaning of Jerusalem as a Holy City for all three religions (Judaism, Christianity, Islam). They say that the lions are the Lions of Judea. I disagree lions are very common in heraldry, and even if this is the Lion of Judea, where is the Moslem element? This proposal made me laugh it shows that the artist had a good knowledge of heraldry and history and lack of any knowledge at all about modern Jerusalem, offering a Christian symbol to a Jewish city (in 1949 Jerusalem was divided so the emblem was for the Jewish part only). Heraldically, it is impressive I have seen the original at the City Archives.
Nahum Shereshevsky, 26 June 1999
The municipal emblem was published in the official gazette (Rashumot), YP 633, 13 November 1958.
Dov Gutterman, 4 September 2001
The capital of Israel (670,000 inh. in 2003) and an holy site to three religions.
Some sites describe the emblem of the city but mainly say the same: The official site report: "The emblem of the city of Jerusalem tell the story of the early days of the State of Israel. Right after the establishment of the state, a decision was made that the emblem of the city of Jerusalem, as the capital of the State of Israel, should reflects the city's special meaning for the Jewish nation. At the first day od Adar 5710 (1950), the official emblem of the Jerusalem the capital, was chosen and printed.
The chosen emblem make reference to the glory of the past of the nation of Israel - the stone wall, as opposed to the olive branches which introduce the hope and paces of peace of a capital in a renewing state. The symbol of a lion, guarding the wall, symbolize the linkage of the capital to Juda Tribe estate and exists as one of the common Jewish symbols which had decorated holy vessels and ornamental curtain and doors of the holy ark in the synagogue....The designer was Eliyahu Koren."
See also: <siach.project.org.il>, <www.waizmanschool.org.il> and <www.jafi.org.il>.
The emblem appeared on a stamp issued on 2 February 1966.
Dov Gutterman, 21 April 2005
image by Eugene Ipavec, 5 September 2007
The Jerusalem flag also appears in a semi-official celebratory version, taller than it is wide, with the shield between two vertical stripes.
M. Breier, 20 June 1999
I think the proportions are wrong. Jerusalem flag is really an "emblem on national flag" and Israeli vertical national flags are not 8:11 as the horizontal one but 1:3 and more. If you want the GIF being proportional then it should have a smaller emblem and thinner stripes.
Dov Gutterman, 23 June 1999
The image looks right in every detail, except these things typically (though not necessarily) are much, much longer. Also, I must reiterate, that as far as I know, they may have no more official status than decorative party favours. I feel obliged to report their existence chiefly because they are so commonplace. Whether they have ever been formally recognized and quantified I do not know. I can say that I have found them hanging on the walls of City Hall itself, so that is probably a strong indicator that it receives, at least, tacit approval.
When it appears in the short form (1:3?), a typical display is flying it paired, side-by-side, with top and bottom edges run through with rods fastened to either side of a pole. In such a manner, it is held erect throughout display, irrespective of wind conditions. I'm sure there must be an obscure technical term for this type of arrangement, perhaps a true vexillum? When so displayed, it is as often from a streetlamp, telephone pole etc. as it is from a proper flagpole.
M. Breier, 24 June 1999
I located a photo of a table flag of Jerussalem. The photo came from the German newspaper "Berliner Morgenpost"
from the 13rd February, 1997. The text under the photo is :
"Historisch bedeutungsvolle Sitzung in Jerusalem : Premier Netanjahu und der Buergermeister der heiligen Stadt, Ehud Olmert" ( Historically significant session in Jerusalem : Prime minister Netanyahu and Ehud Olmart, the mayor of the holy city).
With is known that the city flag of Jerusalem carries the national background. Therefore, I have been surprised that the table flag is divided into two strips. Does the mayor have, possibly, own flag? Which flag is official? National background or bicolore?
Jens Pattke, 20 November 2004
Neither. There are no official municipal flags in Israel, just flags in use (de-facto), which means that they can use any pattern they want.
It is not uncommon that desk flags and regular flags are different. I got about 30 municipal desk flags and most of them are different from the de-facto regular flags
Dov Gutterman, 20 November 2004
image from wikipedia