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[The Olympic flag]
image by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán
Flag adopted: 1914.

"... in 1913, the five rings appeared at the top of a letter written by Pierre de Coubertin. He drew the rings and coloured them in by hand. It was also Coubertin who had the idea for the Olympic flag. He presented the rings and flag in June 1914 in Paris at the Olympic Congress."

The Olympic Symbols ("pdf" document)
Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg, October 14, 2008


See:

See also:

Other sites:


Description of the flag

According to the Olympic Charter the design and proportions of the Olympic flag are those of the flag presented by Pierre de Coubertin at the Paris Congress in 1914.
On a white field without borders, five rings in blue, yellow, black, green, and red interlaced from left to right forming a trapezium with the blue, black and red rings are at the top and the yellow and green rings at the bottom. The proportions of the original flag were 2 x 3m and the rings occupied an area of 0.6 x 2.2m.
There are a few exceptions to this rule. Among these are the Antwerp and Seoul flags, which have a fringe of the six colours around the white field.

Flagmaster 84 [fLm], Autumn 1996
Olympic Charter - International Olympic Committee, 12 December 1999


Ceremonial Olympic flag

[Ceremonial Olympic flag] image by Zachary Harden and Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, July, 2005.

[Ceremonial Olympic flag photo]
From JSonline
Posted by Zachary Harden, August 6, 2004.
Click the image to enlarge


About the Ceremonial Flag

On 5th June at the 90th Session of the International Olympic Committee in Berlin, IOC President Samaranch presented Mr. Tae Woo Roh, President of the Seoul Olympic Organising Committee (SLOOC), with the Seoul Olympic Flag, which is to be flown by host cities as the new official standard of the Games.

The flag was one of two that the SLOOC had made at the request of the IOC to replace the Antwerp Flag, which has become worn with years of use and has now been retired to be placed in the Olympic Museum.

The other Seoul Flag, which was presented to Mr. Samaranch in Seoul last September 27th. just before the dedication of the new Olympic Stadium, is to be kept at the IOC headquarters in Lausanne.

The Dong-A Silk Co., one of Korea's leading producers of silk fabric, made the flag of 100 percent pure Korean raw silk in a three-ply, 21-denier material weighing 45 grams per inch. Three metres long and two metres high, the flag is seamless - one of the few improvements made over the Antwerp Flag, which was not of a single piece. The five-ring emblem, two metres by sixty centimetres, is centered on the flag ; the rings are made of the same fabric as the field, hand-dyed and sewn on with spun silk yarn. The fringe, made of 120-denier spun silk yarn braided by hand, was sewn to the border with 12-ply, 21-denier silk yarn.

All the needlework was done by the deft hands of women skilled in Korea's traditional methods.

Fast acid dyes were used and the coloured portions of the flag were treated with water repellent to render them resistant to running or fading.

The original Olympic flag, based on a design by the Baron Pierre de Coubertin himself, was made in the Au Bon Marché store near Coubertin's birthplace in Paris. It was first flown in 1914 on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the creation of the International Olympic Committee but did not serve as a standard for the Games until 1920 in Antwerp, hence the name by which it came to be known. (No Games were held in 1916 because of the First World War).

This flag has been the official standard of every Olympiad since; and all other Olympic flags, including the new official standards from Seoul, have followed its design.

Upon receiving the new flag, Mr. Roh thanked the IOC forgiving Seoul the honour of making it and said that he hoped it would fly all around the world, contributing to the realisation of the ideals of the IOC and to peace and harmony for all mankind.

During a brief ceremony held in the SLOOC's auditorium, SLOOC President Mr. Tae-Woo Roh presented this new flag to the Mayor of Seoul, Mr. Bo-Yun Yum, on the 11th July in the presence of the members of the SLOOC, the Municipal Council and the Korean Olympic Committee.

The flag will be kept in the Mayor's office until the day of the Opening of the Games of the XXIV Olympiad in 1988.

Olympic Review 215, September 1985 (p. 551-2)
Posted by: Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg, Oct. 7, 2008.


Origin and Meaning of the Olympic flag

Pierre de Coubertin is said to have found the original Olympic symbol engraved on an altar-stone unearthed at Delphi. It has been used at least since Athens 1906 to symbolize the five Olympic continents.
When Pierre de Coubertin in 1913 designed a flag for the 1914 Paris Congress of the Olympic Movement, celebrating the movements twentieth anniversary, naturally he chose the Olympic symbol. For the colours he decided to use the colours of the flags of all countries that were part of the Olympic Movement, six colours in all: White for the cloth and Red, Yellow, Green, Blue, and Black for the rings. The congress was so taken with this design that it adopted it as the flag for the Olympic Movement.
As can be read in the Olympic Charter, the Olympic symbol represents the union of the five continents and the meeting of athletes from throughout the world at the Olympic Games. However, no continent is represented by any specific ring. Though colourful explanations about the symbolism of the coloured rings exist, the only connection between the rings and the continents is that the number five refers to the number of continents. Any other relation must be a post-facto interpretation.

Herman De Wael, 15 April 1999
Flagmaster 84 [fLm], Autumn 1996
Pascal Vagnat, 11 December 1998


The text above contains a passage that needs to be corrected. It is written that "Pierre de Coubertin is said to have found the original Olympic symbol engraved on an altar-stone unearthed at Delphi." Apparently a number of publications on the Olympic games and movement contain similar claims, sometimes accompanied by photographs of the "evidence", a stone with the five rings carved into it.

An article by Robert Knight Barney called 'This Great Symbol: The Tricks of History' and published in Olympic Review (No. 301, 1992 pp. 627-631, 641), sets the record straight concerning the supposed antique origins of the famous Olympic rings. Barney points out that the stones in question, which may still be seen at Delphi, were in fact manufactured for a ceremony which formed part of the torch relay from Greece to Germany for the 1936 games. The stones were since left at various locations at Delphi, causing later visitors to mistake the stones with the rings for genuine antique artefacts.

In the same article Barney also presents new views on the origins of the Olympic emblem. Barney explains that the likely inspiration for the interlocked rings lies in the symbol of the French sports federation USFSA - Union des sociétés françaises des sports athlétiques. The USFSA used an emblem consisting of two interlocking rings, reflecting that the USFSA was born through the merger of two previously independent associations. de Coubertain was president of the USFSA. Barney states that the symbol with the two rings is known to have been used on uniforms "at least as early as 1893." When the time came to make an emblem for the Olympic movement, the 20th anniversary of the Olympic movement in 1914, the symbol of the USFSA served as model: "It seems quite obvious, therefore, that Coubertin's affiliation with the USFSA led him to think in terms of interlocked rings or circles when he applied his mind towards conceiving a logo for his commemorative conference of 1914, indeed, a ring logo that would symbolize his Olympic Movement's success up to that point in time, just as the interlocking of two rings had signified the successful marriage of two distinct societies into one, the USFSA. Circles, after all, connote wholeness (as we are told by the psychologist Karl Jung), the interlocking of them, continuity." (p. 629). In Barney's judgment the five rings of the Olympic emblem "connoted the successful accomplishment of history's first five Modern Olympic Games, and that the ring colours exemplify hues represented in the flags of each of the countries participating in the Games of the Olympiads I, II, III, IV, and V." (p. 631).

Jan Oskar Engene, 13 January 2002.


The writer following article was apparently quite convinced that the flag was first shown in Paris, and thus neglected to check the congress date. Fortunately, I already quoted the month from the website as "June 1914", which tells us the flag was first shown in Egypt, and only then in Paris.

This flag was designed by Pierre de Coubertin in 1913, and was made in the "Bon Marché" store, adjoining the Rue Oudinot, birthplace of the Baron.

This first flag is 3 meters long, and 2 meters wide: the emblem placed in the center is 2,06 m. by 60 cm. From now on the flags which will fly over the stadia will be of this format, although some will possibly have fringes and be made of a more sumptuous material than the simple cotton used for the original. (...)

The Olympic flag made its first official appearance in 1914 in Paris on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the founding of the Modern Olympic Games.

It was next flown on 5th April 1914 in Alexandria during the Pan-Egyptian Games and then in the hall of honour at the San Francisco Exhibition on 18th March 1915. (...)

The flag was not hoisted over an Olympic stadium until 1920 at the Antwerp Games. On this occasion the motto CITIUS, ALTIUS, FORTIUS had been added which, although attributed to Pierre de Coubertin, was in fact composed by one of his friends, the Reverend Father Didon."

The Olympic Flag, Newsletter of the IOC 2, November 1967 (p. 15-16)
Posted by: Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg, Oct. 14, 2008.


These five rings represent the five parts of the world now won over to Olympism and ready to accept its fertile rivalries. Also (white background included) the six colours thus combined represent all those of all nations without exception. The blue and yellow of Sweden, the blue and white of Greece, the French, British, American, Belgian, Italian, Hungarian colours, the yellow and red of Spain are alongside the new ones of Brazil and Australia and next to ancient Japan and young China. This is a truly international emblem!'

As to the origins of the design, Coubertin 'is said to have come across the design of five interlocked rings on an altar unearthed at Delphi'.

Lord Killanin and John Rodda, The Olympic Games, quoted in
100 Years of the Olympic Games: Flag Challenges of the XXVI Olympiad, Flagmaster 84 [fLm], Autumn 1996.

The article also mentions an alternative story about the manufacture of the first flag, which was based on an article by Lucien Philippe in Emblemes et Pavillons 37 (August 1993). Philippe states that the first flag was actually made in the workshops of Maurice Charnier, the founder of the flag manufacturer Festa, at 106 rue Vieille du Temple, in Paris. Crampton tries to reconcile the two accounts by suggesting that Bon Marche could have referred Coubertin to Charnier, but I think this is speculation.

Lord Killanin and John Rodda, The Olympic Games, quoted in
100 Years of the Olympic Games: Flag Challenges of the XXVI Olympiad, Flagmaster 84 [fLm], Autumn 1996
Ian Sumner, Oct. 14, 2008


There's a very thorough article on the origins of the symbol, and the influences that may have made themselves felt on Coubertin, by Karl Lennartz, called 'The story of the rings', from the Journal of Olympic History vol 10 (2001-2) pp29ff, just here.

The author makes the point that the use of interlaced rings to symbolise unity was hardly a new thing, even in Coubertin's day. Coubertin was also high up in the Union des Societes Francaises de Sports Athletiques, which used two interlinked rings as its symbol, and some teams (there's a photo of the US rugby team in 1900, for example) used that symbol on their kit for a time.

The quotation used by William Crampton originally came from an article by Coubertin in the Revue Olympique in 1913.

Ian Sumner, Oct. 14, 2008


The emblem selected to illustrate and represent the 1914 world congress which was to place the final seal on the restoration of the Olympics began to appear on various preliminary documents: five rings linked at regular intervals, their various colours - blue, yellow, black, green and red - standing out against the white of the paper. These five rings represent the five parts of the world now won over to Olympism, ready to accept its fruitful rivalries. In addition, the six colours combined in this way reproduce the colours of every country without exception. The blue and yellow of Sweden, the blue and white of Greece, the tricolor flags of France, England, the United States, Germany, Belgium, Italy and Hungary, and the yellow and red of Spain are included, as are the innovative flags of Brazil and Australia, and those of ancient Japan and modern China. This, truly, is an international emblem. It was made to be turned into a flag, and the look of the flag would be perfect. It is a light, appealing flag, a delight to see fluttering in the wind. Its meaning is largely symbolic. Its success is assured, to the point that after the Congress it can continue to be raised on solemn Olympic occasions. However this may turn out, the celebrations of 1914 now have the eurythmic messengers they needed to announce them. The great poster; the first copies of which have been given to the national Olympic Committees and which continues to be available to them, met with immediate general admiration. The reduction to post card format is equally successful for that medium. The five rings and their various applications will also be deeply appreciated. ..."

In this translation De Coubertin says: "It is a light, appealing flag, a delight to see fluttering in the wind. Its meaning is largely symbolic." This could indicate that the flag already existed. The French, however, is: "Un pareil drapeau est léger, chatoyant, spirituel à voir flotter; il a un sens largement symbolique." Worded like that, I think it speaks of "Such a flag".

De Coubertin indeed presents the emblem as the symbol of the Olympic Congress, though he leaves the door open to using it more generally.

The flag being lent to Angelo B. Olanaki to be flown at the opening of the Chatsby Stadium in Alexandria, Egypt on 5 April 1914 is consistent with this purpose: Had it been the Olympic flag to be, then flying it before it was adopted would seem rather curious. But as the flag of the Olympic Congress, to be held that year, flying the flag at the opening of the first Panegyptian Games would have been quite fitting.

The congress was held 15 - 23 June 1914 in Paris.

The next Olympic Review speaks very enthusiastically about the whole event, describes the festivities, and promises to publish the details of the meetings in the coming issues. It then adds the sombre note that, just after the congress, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife have been murdered.

This small note eventually evolved into a European tribal war killing more than 20 million people. I'm not sure whether, as the war broke out, those next OR-s were actually published, or even written. So far I've not seen any reference to their content, and as a result I don't know how the flag was actually adopted.

The emblem and the flag of 1914
Located by: Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg, Oct. 14, 2008.


Legend of Delphi

The story about the carving the symbol on a stone at Delphi in 1936 appears in an article by Robert K. Barney, 'This great symbol'., in Olympic Revue 301 (November 1992).
Ian Sumner, Oct. 14, 2008


The host's and Greek flag at Olympic ceremonies

At the end of each games, the flag of Greece is raised first, no matter if it is summer or winter, to show the location of the first modern games. The first modern games was held in 1896 at Athens, Greece. The second flag flown is that of the host country of the games. The last flag is the host country of the next games of that same season.
The flags at Sydney were at this order: Greece, Australia, Greece. When the Greek anthem was sung, both Greek flags were raised at the same time in order not to offend the Aussies, and the Aussie anthem came last.
This time at Salt Lake City, it will be Greece, United States, and Italy. Italy will be hosting the games in 2006 in the city of Turin.
Zachary Harden, 26 January 2002.


Illegal Olympic flag?

[The Olympic flag as hoisted in some McDonald's locations]
image by Mark Sensen and Thorsten, October 2, 2004.

Some McDonald's locations in the U.S. fly an Olympic flag with the words "OFFICIAL RESTAURANT". The rings in these flags extend almost all the way to the edges, according the image above.
Thorsten, October 2, 2004.


The flag was also used at McDonald's Canada locations during the games. I never got a good enough look to read the wording, it may have been the same as the U.S., or perhaps dans tous les deux langues officielles in the two official languages, e.g. French and English. It looked like there was more writing than just "OFFICIAL RESTAURANT".
Dean McGee, October 3, 2004.


I believe that the rule is valid for all cases and probably the restaurants are in breach of the agreement with the IOC - but then again, it may well be that IOC allowed the issue even against its regulation, for certain amount of financial support.

See the rule 7, 8, 9, and 12 of the Olympic Charter...

There is a number of other interesting reference to the flag and symbols (and flag related ceremonies etc.) in the Charter.

Click here to read the full text of the Olympic Charter.
This is a 350 KB large-PDF file.

Željko Heimer, October 3, 2004.


National Olympic Committees


A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y | Z |

Names and codes from International Olympic Committee

NOC (Country)                                   CODE MEMBERSHIP FOUNDED CONTINENT
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

AFGHANISTAN                                     AFG       1948    1933    ASIA
ALBANIA                                         ALB       1932    1930    EUROPA
ALGERIA                                         ALG       1963    1962    AFRICA
AMERICAN SAMOA                                  ASA       1998    1984    OCEANIA
ANDORRA                                         AND       1996    1994    EUROPA
ANGOLA                                          ANG       1980    1979    AFRICA
ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA                             ANT       1970    1928    THE AMERICAS
ARGENTINA                                       ARG       1912    1893    CONMEBOL
ARMENIA                                         ARM       1992    1992    EUROPA
ARUBA                                           ARU       1988    1932    THE AMERICAS
AUSTRALIA                                       AUS       1963    1961    OCEANIA
AUSTRIA                                         AUT       1907    1904    EUROPA
AZERBAIJAN                                      AZE       1994    1992    EUROPA
BAHAMAS                                         BAH       1968    1967    THE AMERICAS
BAHRAIN                                         BRN       1966    1957    ASIA
BANGLADESH                                      BAN       1974    1972    ASIA
BARBADOS                                        BAR       1968    1910    THE AMERICAS
BELARUS                                         BLR       1992    1989    EUROPA
BELGIUM                                         BEL       1904    1895    EUROPA
BELIZE                                          BIZ       1986    1980    THE AMERICAS
BENIN                                           BEN       1962    1962    AFRICA
BERMUDA                                         BER       1962    1928    THE AMERICAS
BHUTAN                                            BHU     2000    1983    ASIA
BOLIVIA                                         BOL       1926    1925    CONMEBOL
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA                          BIH       1996    1992    EUROPA
BOTSWANA                                        BOT       1976    1970    AFRICA
BRAZIL                                          BRA       1923    1914    CONMEBOL
BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS                          IVB       1996    1974    THE AMERICAS
BRUNEI DARUSSALAM                               BRU       1969    1959    ASIA
BULGARIA                                        BUL       1924    1923    EUROPA
BURKINA FASO                                    BUR       1964    1960    AFRICA
BURUNDI                                         BDI       1972    1948    AFRICA
CAMBODIA                                        CAM       1953    1933    ASIA
CAMEROON                                        CMR       1962    1959    AFRICA
CANADA                                          CAN       1912    1912    THE AMERICAS
CAPE VERDE                                      CPV       1986    1982    AFRICA
CAYMAN ISLANDS                                  CAY       1992    1966    THE AMERICAS
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC                        CAF       1963    1961    AFRICA
CHAD                                            CHA       1988    1962    AFRICA                  
CHILE                                           CHI       1912    1895    CONMEBOL
CHINESE TAIPEI                                  TPE     1954    1924    ASIA
COLOMBIA                                        COL       1936    1924    CONMEBOL
COMOROS                                           COM     2005    1979    AFRICA
CONGO                                           CGO       1962    1962    AFRICA
COOK ISLANDS                                    COK       1994    1971    OCEANIA
COSTA RICA                                      CRC       1927    1921    THE AMERICAS
COTE D'IVOIRE                                   CIV       1960    1960    AFRICA
CROATIA                                         CRO       1941/92 1912    EUROPA
CUBA                                            CUB       1932    1924    THE AMERICAS
CYPRUS                                          CYP       1948    1934    EUROPA
CZECH REPUBLIC                                  CZE       1907/94 1901    EUROPA
DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF KOREA           PRK       1958    1945    ASIA
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO                COD       1968    1963    AFRICA
DENMARK                                         DEN       1904    1889    EUROPA
DJIBOUTI                                        DJI       1994    1979    AFRICA
DOMINICA                                        DMA       1994    1970    THE AMERICAS
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC                              DOM       1958    1953    THE AMERICAS
ECUADOR                                         ECU       1926    1925    CONMEBOL
EGYPT                                           EGY       1923    1921    AFRICA
EL SALVADOR                                     ESA       1938    1935    THE AMERICAS
EQUATORIAL GUINEA                               GEQ       1986    1960    AFRICA
ERITREA                                         ERI       1998    1996    AFRICA
ESTONIA                                         EST       1923/92 1921    EUROPA
ETHIOPIA                                        ETH       1953    1943    AFRICA
FAROE ISLANDS                                   FRO1  1988    1979    EUROPA
FIJI                                            FIJ       1963    1938    OCEANIA
FINLAND                                         FIN       1908    1907    EUROPA
FRANCE                                          FRA       1904    1919    EUROPA
GABON                                           GAB       1963    1962    AFRICA
GAMBIA                                          GAM       1966    1952    AFRICA
GEORGIA                                         GEO       1992    1990    EUROPA
GERMANY                                         GER       1904    1900    EUROPA
GHANA                                           GHA       1958    1957    AFRICA
GREAT BRITAIN                                 GBR     1910    1876    EUROPA
GREECE                                          GRE       1927    1926    EUROPA
GRENADA                                         GRN       1976    1924    THE AMERICAS
GUAM                                            GUM       1996    1975    OCEANIA
GUATEMALA                                       GUA       1946    1919    THE AMERICAS
GUINEA                                          GUI       1960    1960    AFRICA
GUINEA-BISSAU                                   GBS       1986    1974    AFRICA
GUYANA                                          GUY       1968    1902    THE AMERICAS
HAITI                                           HAI       1933    1904    THE AMERICAS
HONDURAS                                        HON       1951    1951    THE AMERICAS
HONG KONG, CHINA                                HKG       1954    1914    ASIA
HUNGARY                                         HUN       1906    1901    EUROPA
ICELAND                                         ISL       1947    1947    EUROPA
INDIA                                           IND       1948    1937    ASIA
INDONESIA                                       INA       1952    1930    ASIA
IRAQ                                            IRQ       1950    1948    ASIA
IRELAND                                           IRL     1923    1921    EUROPA
ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN                        IRI       1945    1920    ASIA
ISRAEL                                          ISR       1948    1928/48 EUROPA
ITALY                                           ITA       1905    1898    EUROPA
JAMAICA                                         JAM       1962    1910    THE AMERICAS
JAPAN                                           JPN       1929    1921    ASIA
JORDAN                                          JOR       1958    1949    ASIA
KAZAKHSTAN                                      KAZ       1994    1914    EUROPA
KENYA                                           KEN       1960    1960    AFRICA
KIRIBATI                                          KIR                     OCEANIA (PACIFIC)
KOREA                                           KOR       1948    1928    ASIA
KUWAIT                                          KUW       1962    1952    ASIA
KYRGYZSTAN                                      KGZ       1994    1992    ASIA
LAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC                LAO       1952    1951    ASIA
LATVIA                                          LAT       1992/92 1921    EUROPA
LEBANON                                         LIB       1935    1933    ASIA
LESOTHO                                         LES       1964    1932    AFRICA
LIBERIA                                         LBR       1962    1936    AFRICA
LIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYA                          LBA       1963    1962    AFRICA
LIECHTENSTEIN                                   LIE       1974    1934    EUROPA
LITHUANIA                                       LTU       1923/92 1922    EUROPA
LUXEMBOURG                                      LUX       1910    1908    EUROPA
MACAO, CHINA                                      MAC1                        ASIA
THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA       MKD       1994    1908    EUROPA
MADAGASCAR                                      MAD       1962    1961    AFRICA
MALAWI                                          MAW       1967    1966    AFRICA
MALAYSIA                                        MAS       1956    1933    ASIA
MALDIVES                                        MDV       1986    1982    ASIA
MALI                                            MLI       1962    1960    AFRICA
MALTA                                           MLT       1959    1900    EUROPA
MARSHALL ISLANDS                                MHL       2006    2001    OCEANIA
MAURITANIA                                      MTN       1964    1961    AFRICA
MAURITIUS                                       MRI       1962    1952    AFRICA
MEXICO                                          MEX       1929    1927    THE AMERICAS
FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA                  FSM       1997    1995    OCEANIA
REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA                             MDA       1994    1990    EUROPA
MONACO                                          MON       1953    1907    EUROPE
MONGOLIA                                        MGL       1998    1959    ASIA
MONTENEGRO                                        MNE     2006    2006    EUROPA
MOROCCO                                         MAR       1956    1955    AFRICA
MOZAMBIQUE                                      MOZ       1980    1975    AFRICA
MYANMAR                                         MYA       1957    1947    ASIA
NAMIBIA                                         NAM       1992    1990    AFRICA
NAURU                                             NRU     1994    1991    OCEANIA
NEPAL                                           NEP       1970    1951    ASIA
NETHERLANDS                                     NED       1904    1889    EUROPA
NETHERLANDS ANTILLES                            AHO       1932    1921    THE AMERICAS
NEW ZEALAND                                     NZL       1948    1891    OCEANIA
NICARAGUA                                       NCA       1950    1931    THE AMERICAS
NIGER                                           NIG       1967    1967    AFRICA
NIGERIA                                         NGR       1959    1945    AFRICA
NORWAY                                          NOR       1908    1902    EUROPA
OMAN                                            OMA       1980    1978    ASIA
PAKISTAN                                        PAK       1948    1948    ASIA
PALAU                                           PLW       1999    1997    OCEANIA
PALESTINE                                       PLE       1998    1928/62 ASIA
PANAMA                                          PAN       1938    1937    THE AMERICAS
PAPUA NEW GUINEA                                PNG       1963    1962    OCEANIA
PARAGUAY                                        PAR       1921    1906    CONMEBOL
PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA                      CHN       1931    1924    ASIA
PERU                                            PER       1924    1922    CONMEBOL
PHILIPPINES                                     PHI       1928    1907    ASIA
POLAND                                          POL       1923    1919    EUROPA
PORTUGAL                                        POR       1923    1914    EUROPA
PUERTO RICO                                     PUR       1960    1940    THE AMERICAS
QATAR                                           QAT       1970    1960    ASIA
ROMANIA                                         ROM       1922    1909    EUROPA
RUSSIAN FEDERATION                              RUS 1912/92 1912    EUROPA
RWANDA                                          RWA       1976    1972    AFRICA
SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS                           SKN       1992    1932    THE AMERICAS
SAINT LUCIA                                     LCA       1988    1979    THE AMERICAS
SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES                VIN       1988    1979    THE AMERICAS
SAMOA                                           SAM       1986    1968    OCEANIA
SAN MARINO                                      SMR       1988    1931    EUROPA
SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE                           STP       1986    1975    AFRICA
SAUDI ARABIA                                    KSA       1959    1959    ASIA
SENEGAL                                         SEN       1962    1960    AFRICA
SERBIA                                            SER     1920    1919    EUROPA
SEYCHELLES                                      SEY       1986    1979    AFRICA
SIERRA LEONE                                    SLE       1967    1967    AFRICA
SINGAPORE                                       SIN       1952    1892    ASIA
SLOVAKIA                                  SVK     1907/94 1993    EUROPA
SLOVENIA                                        SLO       1992    1920    EUROPA
SOLOMON ISLANDS                                 SOL       1988    1978    OCEANIA
SOMALIA                                         SOM       1960    1951    AFRICA
SOUTH AFRICA                                    RSA       1992    1991    AFRICA
SPAIN                                           ESP       1904    1913    EUROPA
SRI LANKA                                       SRI       1950    1939    ASIA
SUDAN                                           SUD       1948    1936    AFRICA
SURINAME                                        SUR       1929    1920    THE AMERICAS
SWAZILAND                                       SWZ       1978    1968    AFRICA
SWEDEN                                          SWE       1904    1904    EUROPA
SWITZERLAND                                     SUI       1904    1895    EUROPA
SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC                            SYR       1937    1936    ASIA
TAIWAN, REPUBLIC OF CHINA                               SEE: CHINESE TAIPEI TAJIKISTAN                                      TJK       1994    1936    ASIA
UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA                     TAN       1964    1930    AFRICA
THAILAND                                        THA       1925    1916    ASIA
TIMOR-LESTE                                       TLS     2005    2002    ASIA
TOGO                                            TOG       1962    1960    AFRICA
TONGA                                           TGA       1994    1965    OCEANIA
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO                             TRI       1963    1908    THE AMERICAS
TUNISIA                                         TUN       1960    1956    AFRICA
TURKEY                                          TUR       1923    1923    EUROPA
TURKMENISTAN                                    TKM       1994    1992    ASIA
TUVALU                                            TUV     2007    2004    OCEANIA
UGANDA                                          UGA       1959    1924    AFRICA
UKRAINE                                         UKR       1992    1991    EUROPA
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES                            UAE       1972    1971    ASIA
UNITED KINGDOM                                    GBR     1910    1876    EUROPA
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA                        USA       1914    1913    THE AMERICAS
URUGUAY                                         URU       1923    1900    CONMEBOL
UZBEKISTAN                                      UZB       1994    1946    ASIA
VANUATU                                         VAN       1988    1934    OCEANIA
VENEZUELA                                       VEN       1952    1926    CONMEBOL
VIET NAM                                        VIE       1964    1962    ASIA
VIRGIN ISLANDS                                    ISV     1998    1992    THE AMERICAS
YEMEN                                           YEM       1980    1962    ASIA
ZAMBIA                                          ZAM       1964    1929    AFRICA
ZIMBABWE                                        ZIM       1965    1965    AFRICA

COUNTRY                                                                 ZONE
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HOLY SEE (VATICAN STATE)                                                  EUROPE

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