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image by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán
Flag adopted: 1914.
"... in 1913, the five rings appeared at the top of a letter written by Pierre de Coubertin. He drew the rings and coloured them in by hand. It was also Coubertin who had the idea for the Olympic flag. He presented the rings and flag in June 1914 in Paris at the Olympic Congress."
The Olympic Symbols ("pdf" document)
Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg, October 14, 2008
According to the Olympic Charter the design and proportions of the Olympic flag are those of the flag presented by Pierre de Coubertin at the Paris Congress in 1914.
On a white field without borders, five rings in blue, yellow, black, green, and red interlaced from left to right forming a trapezium with the blue, black and red rings are at the top and the yellow and green rings at the bottom. The proportions of the original flag were 2 x 3m and the rings occupied an area of 0.6 x 2.2m.
There are a few exceptions to this rule. Among these are the Antwerp and Seoul flags, which have a fringe of the six colours around the white field.
Flagmaster 84 [fLm], Autumn 1996
Olympic Charter - International Olympic Committee, 12 December 1999
image by Zachary Harden and Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, July, 2005.
Posted by Zachary Harden, August 6, 2004.
Click the image to enlarge
On 5th June at the 90th Session of the International Olympic Committee in Berlin, IOC President Samaranch presented Mr. Tae Woo Roh, President of the Seoul Olympic Organising Committee (SLOOC), with the Seoul Olympic Flag, which is to be flown by host cities as the new official standard of the Games.
The flag was one of two that the SLOOC had made at the request of the IOC to replace the Antwerp Flag, which has become worn with years of use and has now been retired to be placed in the Olympic Museum.
The other Seoul Flag, which was presented to Mr. Samaranch in Seoul last September 27th. just before the dedication of the new Olympic Stadium, is to be kept at the IOC headquarters in Lausanne.
The Dong-A Silk Co., one of Korea's leading producers of silk fabric, made the flag of 100 percent pure Korean raw silk in a three-ply, 21-denier material weighing 45 grams per inch. Three metres long and two metres high, the flag is seamless - one of the few improvements made over the Antwerp Flag, which was not of a single piece. The five-ring emblem, two metres by sixty centimetres, is centered on the flag ; the rings are made of the same fabric as the field, hand-dyed and sewn on with spun silk yarn. The fringe, made of 120-denier spun silk yarn braided by hand, was sewn to the border with 12-ply, 21-denier silk yarn.
All the needlework was done by the deft hands of women skilled in Korea's traditional methods.
Fast acid dyes were used and the coloured portions of the flag were treated with water repellent to render them resistant to running or fading.
The original Olympic flag, based on a design by the Baron Pierre de Coubertin himself, was made in the Au Bon Marché store near Coubertin's birthplace in Paris. It was first flown in 1914 on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the creation of the International Olympic Committee but did not serve as a standard for the Games until 1920 in Antwerp, hence the name by which it came to be known. (No Games were held in 1916 because of the First World War).
This flag has been the official standard of every Olympiad since; and all other Olympic flags, including the new official standards from Seoul, have followed its design.
Upon receiving the new flag, Mr. Roh thanked the IOC forgiving Seoul the honour of making it and said that he hoped it would fly all around the world, contributing to the realisation of the ideals of the IOC and to peace and harmony for all mankind.
During a brief ceremony held in the SLOOC's auditorium, SLOOC President Mr. Tae-Woo Roh presented this new flag to the Mayor of Seoul, Mr. Bo-Yun Yum, on the 11th July in the presence of the members of the SLOOC, the Municipal Council and the Korean Olympic Committee.
The flag will be kept in the Mayor's office until the day of the Opening of the Games of the XXIV Olympiad in 1988.
Olympic Review 215, September 1985 (p. 551-2)
Posted by: Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg, Oct. 7, 2008.
Pierre de Coubertin is said to have found the original Olympic symbol engraved on an altar-stone unearthed at Delphi. It has been used at least since Athens 1906 to symbolize the five Olympic continents.
When Pierre de Coubertin in 1913 designed a flag for the 1914 Paris Congress of the Olympic Movement, celebrating the movements twentieth anniversary, naturally he chose the Olympic symbol. For the colours he decided to use the colours of the flags of all countries that were part of the Olympic Movement, six colours in all: White for the cloth and Red, Yellow, Green, Blue, and Black for the rings. The congress was so taken with this design that it adopted it as the flag for the Olympic Movement.
As can be read in the Olympic Charter, the Olympic symbol represents the union of the five continents and the meeting of athletes from throughout the world at the Olympic Games. However, no continent is represented by any specific ring. Though colourful explanations about the symbolism of the coloured rings exist, the only connection between the rings and the continents is that the number five refers to the number of continents. Any other relation must be a post-facto interpretation.
Herman De Wael, 15 April 1999
Flagmaster 84 [fLm], Autumn 1996
Pascal Vagnat, 11 December 1998
The text above contains a passage that needs to be corrected. It is written that "Pierre de Coubertin is said to have found the original Olympic symbol engraved on an altar-stone unearthed at Delphi." Apparently a number of publications on the Olympic games and movement contain similar claims, sometimes accompanied by photographs of the "evidence", a stone with the five rings carved into it.
An article by Robert Knight Barney called 'This Great Symbol: The Tricks of History' and published in Olympic Review (No. 301, 1992 pp. 627-631, 641), sets the record straight concerning the supposed antique origins of the famous Olympic rings. Barney points out that the stones in question, which may still be seen at Delphi, were in fact manufactured for a ceremony which formed part of the torch relay from Greece to Germany for the 1936 games. The stones were since left at various locations at Delphi, causing later visitors to mistake the stones with the rings for genuine antique artefacts.
In the same article Barney also presents new views on the origins of the Olympic emblem. Barney explains that the likely inspiration for the interlocked rings lies in the symbol of the French sports federation USFSA - Union des sociétés françaises des sports athlétiques. The USFSA used an emblem consisting of two interlocking rings, reflecting that the USFSA was born through the merger of two previously independent associations. de Coubertain was president of the USFSA. Barney states that the symbol with the two rings is known to have been used on uniforms "at least as early as 1893." When the time came to make an emblem for the Olympic movement, the 20th anniversary of the Olympic movement in 1914, the symbol of the USFSA served as model: "It seems quite obvious, therefore, that Coubertin's affiliation with the USFSA led him to think in terms of interlocked rings or circles when he applied his mind towards conceiving a logo for his commemorative conference of 1914, indeed, a ring logo that would symbolize his Olympic Movement's success up to that point in time, just as the interlocking of two rings had signified the successful marriage of two distinct societies into one, the USFSA. Circles, after all, connote wholeness (as we are told by the psychologist Karl Jung), the interlocking of them, continuity." (p. 629). In Barney's judgment the five rings of the Olympic emblem "connoted the successful accomplishment of history's first five Modern Olympic Games, and that the ring colours exemplify hues represented in the flags of each of the countries participating in the Games of the Olympiads I, II, III, IV, and V." (p. 631).
Jan Oskar Engene, 13 January 2002.
The writer following article was apparently quite convinced that the flag was first shown in Paris, and thus neglected to check the congress date. Fortunately, I already quoted the month from the website as "June 1914", which tells us the flag was first shown in Egypt, and only then in Paris.
This flag was designed by Pierre de Coubertin in 1913, and was made in the "Bon Marché" store, adjoining the Rue Oudinot, birthplace of the Baron.
This first flag is 3 meters long, and 2 meters wide: the emblem placed in the center is 2,06 m. by 60 cm. From now on the flags which will fly over the stadia will be of this format, although some will possibly have fringes and be made of a more sumptuous material than the simple cotton used for the original. (...)
The Olympic flag made its first official appearance in 1914 in Paris on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the founding of the Modern Olympic Games.
It was next flown on 5th April 1914 in Alexandria during the Pan-Egyptian Games and then in the hall of honour at the San Francisco Exhibition on 18th March 1915. (...)
The flag was not hoisted over an Olympic stadium until 1920 at the Antwerp Games. On this occasion the motto CITIUS, ALTIUS, FORTIUS had been added which, although attributed to Pierre de Coubertin, was in fact composed by one of his friends, the Reverend Father Didon."
The Olympic Flag, Newsletter of the IOC 2, November 1967 (p. 15-16)
Posted by: Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg, Oct. 14, 2008.
These five rings represent the five parts of the world now won over to Olympism and ready to accept its fertile rivalries. Also (white background included) the six colours thus combined represent all those of all nations without exception. The blue and yellow of Sweden, the blue and white of Greece, the French, British, American, Belgian, Italian, Hungarian colours, the yellow and red of Spain are alongside the new ones of Brazil and Australia and next to ancient Japan and young China. This is a truly international emblem!'
As to the origins of the design, Coubertin 'is said to have come across the design of five interlocked rings on an altar unearthed at Delphi'.
Lord Killanin and John Rodda, The Olympic Games, quoted in
100 Years of the Olympic Games: Flag Challenges of the XXVI Olympiad, Flagmaster 84 [fLm], Autumn 1996.
The article also mentions an alternative story about the manufacture of the first flag, which was based on an article by Lucien Philippe in Emblemes et Pavillons 37 (August 1993). Philippe states that the first flag was actually made in the workshops of Maurice Charnier, the founder of the flag manufacturer Festa, at 106 rue Vieille du Temple, in Paris. Crampton tries to reconcile the two accounts by suggesting that Bon Marche could have referred Coubertin to Charnier, but I think this is speculation.
Lord Killanin and John Rodda, The Olympic Games, quoted in
100 Years of the Olympic Games: Flag Challenges of the XXVI Olympiad, Flagmaster 84 [fLm], Autumn 1996
Ian Sumner, Oct. 14, 2008
There's a very thorough article on the origins of the symbol, and the influences that may have made themselves felt on Coubertin, by Karl Lennartz, called 'The story of the rings', from the Journal of Olympic History vol 10 (2001-2) pp29ff, just here.
The author makes the point that the use of interlaced rings to symbolise unity was hardly a new thing, even in Coubertin's day. Coubertin was also high up in the Union des Societes Francaises de Sports Athletiques, which used two interlinked rings as its symbol, and some teams (there's a photo of the US rugby team in 1900, for example) used that symbol on their kit for a time.
The quotation used by William Crampton originally came from an article by Coubertin in the Revue Olympique in 1913.
Ian Sumner, Oct. 14, 2008
The emblem selected to illustrate and represent the 1914 world congress which was to place the final seal on the restoration of the Olympics began to appear on various preliminary documents: five rings linked at regular intervals, their various colours - blue, yellow, black, green and red - standing out against the white of the paper. These five rings represent the five parts of the world now won over to Olympism, ready to accept its fruitful rivalries. In addition, the six colours combined in this way reproduce the colours of every country without exception. The blue and yellow of Sweden, the blue and white of Greece, the tricolor flags of France, England, the United States, Germany, Belgium, Italy and Hungary, and the yellow and red of Spain are included, as are the innovative flags of Brazil and Australia, and those of ancient Japan and modern China. This, truly, is an international emblem. It was made to be turned into a flag, and the look of the flag would be perfect. It is a light, appealing flag, a delight to see fluttering in the wind. Its meaning is largely symbolic. Its success is assured, to the point that after the Congress it can continue to be raised on solemn Olympic occasions. However this may turn out, the celebrations of 1914 now have the eurythmic messengers they needed to announce them. The great poster; the first copies of which have been given to the national Olympic Committees and which continues to be available to them, met with immediate general admiration. The reduction to post card format is equally successful for that medium. The five rings and their various applications will also be deeply appreciated. ..."
In this translation De Coubertin says: "It is a light, appealing flag, a delight to see fluttering in the wind. Its meaning is largely symbolic." This could indicate that the flag already existed. The French, however, is: "Un pareil drapeau est léger, chatoyant, spirituel à voir flotter; il a un sens largement symbolique." Worded like that, I think it speaks of "Such a flag".
De Coubertin indeed presents the emblem as the symbol of the Olympic Congress, though he leaves the door open to using it more generally.
The flag being lent to Angelo B. Olanaki to be flown at the opening of the Chatsby Stadium in Alexandria, Egypt on 5 April 1914 is consistent with this purpose: Had it been the Olympic flag to be, then flying it before it was adopted would seem rather curious. But as the flag of the Olympic Congress, to be held that year, flying the flag at the opening of the first Panegyptian Games would have been quite fitting.
The congress was held 15 - 23 June 1914 in Paris.
The next Olympic Review speaks very enthusiastically about the whole event, describes the festivities, and promises to publish the details of the meetings in the coming issues. It then adds the sombre note that, just after the congress, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife have been murdered.
This small note eventually evolved into a European tribal war killing more than 20 million people. I'm not sure whether, as the war broke out, those next OR-s were actually published, or even written. So far I've not seen any reference to their content, and as a result I don't know how the flag was actually adopted.
The emblem and the flag of 1914
Located by: Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg, Oct. 14, 2008.
The story about the carving the symbol on a stone at Delphi in 1936 appears in an article by Robert K. Barney, 'This great symbol'., in Olympic Revue 301 (November 1992).
Ian Sumner, Oct. 14, 2008
At the end of each games, the flag of Greece is raised first, no matter if it is summer or winter, to show the location of the first modern games. The first modern games was held in 1896 at Athens, Greece. The second flag flown is that of the host country of the games. The last flag is the host country of the next games of that same season.
The flags at Sydney were at this order: Greece, Australia, Greece. When the Greek anthem was sung, both Greek flags were raised at the same time in order not to offend the Aussies, and the Aussie anthem came last.
This time at Salt Lake City, it will be Greece, United States, and Italy. Italy will be hosting the games in 2006 in the city of Turin.
Zachary Harden, 26 January 2002.
image by Mark Sensen and Thorsten, October 2, 2004.
Some McDonald's locations in the U.S. fly an Olympic flag with the words "OFFICIAL RESTAURANT". The rings in these flags extend almost all the way to the edges, according the image above.
Thorsten, October 2, 2004.
The flag was also used at McDonald's Canada locations during the games. I never got a good enough look to read the wording, it may have been the same as the U.S., or perhaps dans tous les deux langues officielles in the two official languages, e.g. French and English. It looked like there was more writing than just "OFFICIAL RESTAURANT".
Dean McGee, October 3, 2004.
I believe that the rule is valid for all cases and probably the restaurants are in breach of the agreement with the IOC - but then again, it may well be that IOC allowed the issue even against its regulation, for certain amount of financial support.
See the rule 7, 8, 9, and 12 of the Olympic Charter...
There is a number of other interesting reference to the flag and symbols (and flag related ceremonies etc.) in the Charter.
Click here to read the full text of the Olympic Charter.
This is a 350 KB large-PDF file.
Željko Heimer, October 3, 2004.
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y | Z |
Names and codes from International Olympic Committee NOC (Country) CODE MEMBERSHIP FOUNDED CONTINENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- AFGHANISTAN AFG 1948 1933 ASIA ALBANIA ALB 1932 1930 EUROPA ALGERIA ALG 1963 1962 AFRICA AMERICAN SAMOA ASA 1998 1984 OCEANIA ANDORRA AND 1996 1994 EUROPA ANGOLA ANG 1980 1979 AFRICA ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA ANT 1970 1928 THE AMERICAS ARGENTINA ARG 1912 1893 CONMEBOL ARMENIA ARM 1992 1992 EUROPA ARUBA ARU 1988 1932 THE AMERICAS AUSTRALIA AUS 1963 1961 OCEANIA AUSTRIA AUT 1907 1904 EUROPA AZERBAIJAN AZE 1994 1992 EUROPA BAHAMAS BAH 1968 1967 THE AMERICAS BAHRAIN BRN 1966 1957 ASIA BANGLADESH BAN 1974 1972 ASIA BARBADOS BAR 1968 1910 THE AMERICAS BELARUS BLR 1992 1989 EUROPA BELGIUM BEL 1904 1895 EUROPA BELIZE BIZ 1986 1980 THE AMERICAS BENIN BEN 1962 1962 AFRICA BERMUDA BER 1962 1928 THE AMERICAS BHUTAN BHU 2000 1983 ASIA BOLIVIA BOL 1926 1925 CONMEBOL BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA BIH 1996 1992 EUROPA BOTSWANA BOT 1976 1970 AFRICA BRAZIL BRA 1923 1914 CONMEBOL BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS IVB 1996 1974 THE AMERICAS BRUNEI DARUSSALAM BRU 1969 1959 ASIA BULGARIA BUL 1924 1923 EUROPA BURKINA FASO BUR 1964 1960 AFRICA BURUNDI BDI 1972 1948 AFRICA CAMBODIA CAM 1953 1933 ASIA CAMEROON CMR 1962 1959 AFRICA CANADA CAN 1912 1912 THE AMERICAS CAPE VERDE CPV 1986 1982 AFRICA CAYMAN ISLANDS CAY 1992 1966 THE AMERICAS CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC CAF 1963 1961 AFRICA CHAD CHA 1988 1962 AFRICA CHILE CHI 1912 1895 CONMEBOL CHINESE TAIPEI TPE 1954 1924 ASIA COLOMBIA COL 1936 1924 CONMEBOL COMOROS COM 2005 1979 AFRICA CONGO CGO 1962 1962 AFRICA COOK ISLANDS COK 1994 1971 OCEANIA COSTA RICA CRC 1927 1921 THE AMERICAS COTE D'IVOIRE CIV 1960 1960 AFRICA CROATIA CRO 1941/92 1912 EUROPA CUBA CUB 1932 1924 THE AMERICAS CYPRUS CYP 1948 1934 EUROPA CZECH REPUBLIC CZE 1907/94 1901 EUROPA DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF KOREA PRK 1958 1945 ASIA DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO COD 1968 1963 AFRICA DENMARK DEN 1904 1889 EUROPA DJIBOUTI DJI 1994 1979 AFRICA DOMINICA DMA 1994 1970 THE AMERICAS DOMINICAN REPUBLIC DOM 1958 1953 THE AMERICAS ECUADOR ECU 1926 1925 CONMEBOL EGYPT EGY 1923 1921 AFRICA EL SALVADOR ESA 1938 1935 THE AMERICAS EQUATORIAL GUINEA GEQ 1986 1960 AFRICA ERITREA ERI 1998 1996 AFRICA ESTONIA EST 1923/92 1921 EUROPA ETHIOPIA ETH 1953 1943 AFRICA FAROE ISLANDS FRO1 1988 1979 EUROPA FIJI FIJ 1963 1938 OCEANIA FINLAND FIN 1908 1907 EUROPA FRANCE FRA 1904 1919 EUROPA GABON GAB 1963 1962 AFRICA GAMBIA GAM 1966 1952 AFRICA GEORGIA GEO 1992 1990 EUROPA GERMANY GER 1904 1900 EUROPA GHANA GHA 1958 1957 AFRICA GREAT BRITAIN GBR 1910 1876 EUROPA GREECE GRE 1927 1926 EUROPA GRENADA GRN 1976 1924 THE AMERICAS GUAM GUM 1996 1975 OCEANIA GUATEMALA GUA 1946 1919 THE AMERICAS GUINEA GUI 1960 1960 AFRICA GUINEA-BISSAU GBS 1986 1974 AFRICA GUYANA GUY 1968 1902 THE AMERICAS HAITI HAI 1933 1904 THE AMERICAS HONDURAS HON 1951 1951 THE AMERICAS HONG KONG, CHINA HKG 1954 1914 ASIA HUNGARY HUN 1906 1901 EUROPA ICELAND ISL 1947 1947 EUROPA INDIA IND 1948 1937 ASIA INDONESIA INA 1952 1930 ASIA IRAQ IRQ 1950 1948 ASIA IRELAND IRL 1923 1921 EUROPA ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN IRI 1945 1920 ASIA ISRAEL ISR 1948 1928/48 EUROPA ITALY ITA 1905 1898 EUROPA JAMAICA JAM 1962 1910 THE AMERICAS JAPAN JPN 1929 1921 ASIA JORDAN JOR 1958 1949 ASIA KAZAKHSTAN KAZ 1994 1914 EUROPA KENYA KEN 1960 1960 AFRICA KIRIBATI KIR OCEANIA (PACIFIC) KOREA KOR 1948 1928 ASIA KUWAIT KUW 1962 1952 ASIA KYRGYZSTAN KGZ 1994 1992 ASIA LAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC LAO 1952 1951 ASIA LATVIA LAT 1992/92 1921 EUROPA LEBANON LIB 1935 1933 ASIA LESOTHO LES 1964 1932 AFRICA LIBERIA LBR 1962 1936 AFRICA LIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYA LBA 1963 1962 AFRICA LIECHTENSTEIN LIE 1974 1934 EUROPA LITHUANIA LTU 1923/92 1922 EUROPA LUXEMBOURG LUX 1910 1908 EUROPA MACAO, CHINA MAC1 ASIA THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA MKD 1994 1908 EUROPA MADAGASCAR MAD 1962 1961 AFRICA MALAWI MAW 1967 1966 AFRICA MALAYSIA MAS 1956 1933 ASIA MALDIVES MDV 1986 1982 ASIA MALI MLI 1962 1960 AFRICA MALTA MLT 1959 1900 EUROPA MARSHALL ISLANDS MHL 2006 2001 OCEANIA MAURITANIA MTN 1964 1961 AFRICA MAURITIUS MRI 1962 1952 AFRICA MEXICO MEX 1929 1927 THE AMERICAS FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA FSM 1997 1995 OCEANIA REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA MDA 1994 1990 EUROPA MONACO MON 1953 1907 EUROPE MONGOLIA MGL 1998 1959 ASIA MONTENEGRO MNE 2006 2006 EUROPA MOROCCO MAR 1956 1955 AFRICA MOZAMBIQUE MOZ 1980 1975 AFRICA MYANMAR MYA 1957 1947 ASIA NAMIBIA NAM 1992 1990 AFRICA NAURU NRU 1994 1991 OCEANIA NEPAL NEP 1970 1951 ASIA NETHERLANDS NED 1904 1889 EUROPA NETHERLANDS ANTILLES AHO 1932 1921 THE AMERICAS NEW ZEALAND NZL 1948 1891 OCEANIA NICARAGUA NCA 1950 1931 THE AMERICAS NIGER NIG 1967 1967 AFRICA NIGERIA NGR 1959 1945 AFRICA NORWAY NOR 1908 1902 EUROPA OMAN OMA 1980 1978 ASIA PAKISTAN PAK 1948 1948 ASIA PALAU PLW 1999 1997 OCEANIA PALESTINE PLE 1998 1928/62 ASIA PANAMA PAN 1938 1937 THE AMERICAS PAPUA NEW GUINEA PNG 1963 1962 OCEANIA PARAGUAY PAR 1921 1906 CONMEBOL PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA CHN 1931 1924 ASIA PERU PER 1924 1922 CONMEBOL PHILIPPINES PHI 1928 1907 ASIA POLAND POL 1923 1919 EUROPA PORTUGAL POR 1923 1914 EUROPA PUERTO RICO PUR 1960 1940 THE AMERICAS QATAR QAT 1970 1960 ASIA ROMANIA ROM 1922 1909 EUROPA RUSSIAN FEDERATION RUS 1912/92 1912 EUROPA RWANDA RWA 1976 1972 AFRICA SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS SKN 1992 1932 THE AMERICAS SAINT LUCIA LCA 1988 1979 THE AMERICAS SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES VIN 1988 1979 THE AMERICAS SAMOA SAM 1986 1968 OCEANIA SAN MARINO SMR 1988 1931 EUROPA SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE STP 1986 1975 AFRICA SAUDI ARABIA KSA 1959 1959 ASIA SENEGAL SEN 1962 1960 AFRICA SERBIA SER 1920 1919 EUROPA SEYCHELLES SEY 1986 1979 AFRICA SIERRA LEONE SLE 1967 1967 AFRICA SINGAPORE SIN 1952 1892 ASIA SLOVAKIA SVK 1907/94 1993 EUROPA SLOVENIA SLO 1992 1920 EUROPA SOLOMON ISLANDS SOL 1988 1978 OCEANIA SOMALIA SOM 1960 1951 AFRICA SOUTH AFRICA RSA 1992 1991 AFRICA SPAIN ESP 1904 1913 EUROPA SRI LANKA SRI 1950 1939 ASIA SUDAN SUD 1948 1936 AFRICA SURINAME SUR 1929 1920 THE AMERICAS SWAZILAND SWZ 1978 1968 AFRICA SWEDEN SWE 1904 1904 EUROPA SWITZERLAND SUI 1904 1895 EUROPA SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC SYR 1937 1936 ASIA TAIWAN, REPUBLIC OF CHINA SEE: CHINESE TAIPEI TAJIKISTAN TJK 1994 1936 ASIA UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA TAN 1964 1930 AFRICA THAILAND THA 1925 1916 ASIA TIMOR-LESTE TLS 2005 2002 ASIA TOGO TOG 1962 1960 AFRICA TONGA TGA 1994 1965 OCEANIA TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO TRI 1963 1908 THE AMERICAS TUNISIA TUN 1960 1956 AFRICA TURKEY TUR 1923 1923 EUROPA TURKMENISTAN TKM 1994 1992 ASIA TUVALU TUV 2007 2004 OCEANIA UGANDA UGA 1959 1924 AFRICA UKRAINE UKR 1992 1991 EUROPA UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UAE 1972 1971 ASIA UNITED KINGDOM GBR 1910 1876 EUROPA UNITED STATES OF AMERICA USA 1914 1913 THE AMERICAS URUGUAY URU 1923 1900 CONMEBOL UZBEKISTAN UZB 1994 1946 ASIA VANUATU VAN 1988 1934 OCEANIA VENEZUELA VEN 1952 1926 CONMEBOL VIET NAM VIE 1964 1962 ASIA VIRGIN ISLANDS ISV 1998 1992 THE AMERICAS YEMEN YEM 1980 1962 ASIA ZAMBIA ZAM 1964 1929 AFRICA ZIMBABWE ZIM 1965 1965 AFRICA
COUNTRY ZONE ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- HOLY SEE (VATICAN STATE) EUROPE ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------