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by Zeljko Heimer, 31 Dec 2002
Flag adopted 1 July 1962, coat of arms adopted 1 July 1962.
In Rabbow's 'dtv-Lexikon politischer Symbole', 1970, is written "the original red-yellow-green flag in the form of the republican tricolour was introduced when the Republic of Ruanda was proclaimed on 21-1-1961. It appeared that this flag was identical with the flag of Guinea, so the 'R' was inserted in 1962 for 'R(uanda), born through R(evolution), confirmed by R(eferendum)'. The panafrican colors signified: red, the shedding of blood and the suffering during the people's liberation (that is, the Hutus); yellow: rest and peace of a free people; green, hope and trust.
Jarig Bakker, 5 Jun 1999
We have the adoption date for the Rwandan R flag as 1 July 1962. W. Smith in [smi82] gives the official hoisting date as "approximately September 1961". I guess that 1 July 1962 is the official adoption of the legislation that confirmed the adition of the letter R in the flag that was done already in practice previous September.
Zeljko Heimer, 29 Dec 2000
In Album 2000 one can find: the Old National Flag. CSW/--- 2:3
Vertical tricolour of red-yellow-green with black letter R in the middle.
The image is no surprise, but could do handy instead of the 1996 image I made with the technology (and know-how) of the time. However, the Album 2000 image has letter pictured thinner (or more elegant, if you wish) then in other representations I encountured. The simple typeface used here is usually called Gothic or Futura family. Of course, the exact shape and size of the letter was never officially prescribed and therefore we should not insist in describing differences in various sources. Something simple as above would surely be among the most popular choices.
Zeljko Heimer, 31 Dec 2002
It is not at all clear from sources if the Rwanda 1st flag was red,yellow,green or green,yellow,red !?
William Crampton mentions in his book named "Flags & Coat of Arms" in 1985 [mch85a] that Rwanda's tricolor in the pan-african colors with vertical stripes of red, yellow and green was established in 1961 and later that year a black letter "R" was added in the centre of the flag to distinguish the flag of Rwanda from that of Guinea. The similar description can be seen in Dr.Whitney Smiths [smi75c].
However, William Crampton amended his above text in his book named "The World of Flags A Pictorial History" in 1990 [cra90] that the 1st flag of Rwanda was introduced by PARMEHUTU on 28 January 1961 and was simple vertical tricolor of green, yellow, red - however this turned out to be identical with the flag of Mali, once this country had moved the Kanga (black outline of a man) from its flag (1 March 1961) and a large black "R" was added to the centre and that in September 1961 the flag was altered so that the red and green changed places.
I believe Crampton's own correction because the Gunean flag was introduced in 1958 and Rwanda people could know that flag as one of New African leader's flag and at that time simple green, yellow, red vertical flag had not been used by any other African nation to my best knowledge. How could they copy Guinean flag for their national flag ?
I assume that it was very amazing to Rwanda political leaders to learn that Mali changed their flag on 1 March 1961, just two months after Rwanda 1st flag introduction. And they had to distinguish their flag from most similar flag (Guinean) as well then just put "R" in reverse tricolour which makes the only one exsisting national flag with country's initial.
Nozomi Kariyasu , 1 Feb 2001
It is san serif in the English edition. It is also san serif in Flags by Kent Alexander [maybe not surprising as Whitney Smith is the consulting editor] and in Flags of the World by William Crampton.
Stuart Notholt, 19 Sep 1995
In a documentary about Rwanda on the ABC in Australia a few days ago they had footage of the former (assassinated) Rwandan President taking the Presidential oath. He was standing next to a silk Rwandan flag - the 'R' was sans-serif.
Later they showed the Rwandan Ambassador to the UN at some UN meeting. The flag in front of him had a serifed 'R'.
I suspect that there is probably no explicit definition of the exact size, style and internal dimensions of the 'R', hence the variation we see. However, it would seem the sans-serif 'R' is used more often, and if used at a Presidential swearing-in, is probably the closest we're going to get to an official standard.
Brendan Jones, 20 Sep 1995
What does the reverse of the rwandan flag looks like? Is the letter R mirrored?
António Martins, 2 Feb 2000
I believe that I read some time ago that it is not prescribed anywhere, and is usually seen on backside "unreadable" (Ya! :-) and only on the more expensive ceremonial flags these are made two sided.
Zeljko Heimer, 5 Feb 2000
I doubt that it had a distinctive flag. Until 1918 it was part of German East Africa and after WW1 a League of Nations Mandated territory, with Belgium as the protecting power. Maybe the Belgian Congo flag (blue with a yellow star) was used - although strictly speaking Ruanda-Urundi wasn't part of the Congo.
Stuart Notholt, 30 Jul 1996
It is quite difficult to find any information on the Rwanda-Urundi territory. One book mentions a colonial (de facto) badge for Urundi, an oval shield with the heads of a lion and a crane. Behind the shield are four spears. The arms of the independent state of Burundi is obviously based on this badge. The same book also says that Burundi's flag is based on the logo (flag) of the Belgian airlines "Sabena". It is rather unusual that a national flag is modelled after a company flag. It must be different from the present one (blue disk with a stylized "S").
Harald Müller, 1 Aug 1996