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Dictionary of Vexillology: E (’E’ Cross - Enhanced Bend Sinister)

Last modified: 2010-01-02 by phil nelson
Keywords: vexillological terms |
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‘E’ CROSS
See ‘two-and-a-half armed cross’.
EAGLE
1) The name given to a French military colour whose staff displayed a finial in the form of a gilded eagle, used during the Napoleonic era and later Second Empire and based on the eagles of ancient Rome (see 2) below, ‘finial’ and also ‘colour 2)’).
2) The vexilloid carried as a main standard by ancient Roman legions - the aquila (see also ‘aquilifer’, 'signum 1)', ‘standard 5)’, 'vexillary and ‘vexilloid’).

Please note that during the Napoleonic era the eagle-topped staff alone usually acted as a regimental standard whilst on campaign, with the colour itself being retained at a regimental depot.


EAST-SOUTH DIAGONAL
A diagonal stripe running from the upper fly corner to the lower hoist corner, whose corners may or may not touch the corners of the flag but whose width is contained within the width of the flag at the fly and the length of the flag at its hoist (see also ‘ascending diagonal’, ‘descending diagonal’, ‘east-west diagonal’, ‘north-east diagonal’, ‘north-south diagonal’, ‘south-east diagonal’, ‘south-north diagonal’, ‘west-east diagonal’, and ‘west-south diagonal’).

Lazne Libverda, Czech Republic
Flag of Lazne Libverda, Czech Republic (fotw)

Please note that this term, whilst an extension of those existing and established, has been introduced by the editors


EAST-WEST DIAGONAL
A diagonal stripe that runs from the lower hoist corner to the upper fly corner, whose corners generally touch the corners of the flag but whose width is entirely contained within the width of the flag – a reduced bend sinister. See ‘bend’ in ‘Appendix VI’ and ‘Appendix IX’ (also ‘ascending diagonal’, ‘descending diagonal’, ‘east-south diagonal’, ‘north-east diagonal’, ‘north-south diagonal’, ‘south-east diagonal’, ‘south-north diagonal’, ‘west-east diagonal’, ‘west-north diagonal’, and ‘west-south diagonal’).

[east-west diagonal]
The flag of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (fotw)


ECCLESIASTIC (or ECCLESIASTICAL) FLAG
See ‘Christian flag’.

EDGING (or EDGED)
1) In vexillology a term that may be used in place of fimbriation (or fimbriated), particularly where that fimbriation does not follow the heraldic rule of tincture, and/or serves no heraldic purpose – see ‘fimbriation’ and ‘rule of tincture’.
2) In strict heraldic practice the term that should be (but rarely if ever is) used in place of fimbriation when a charge so fimbriated touches the edge of a shield, banner of arms or flag.

Darda, Croatia
Flag of Darda, Croatia (fotw)


ELECTORAL CAP (or BONNET)
The term for a coronet (of varying design) now obsolete, that appeared above the arms of those German rulers who (until 1806) had the hereditary right to elect an emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, with a typical example being that above the Hanoverian inescutcheon on the royal standard of the UK from 1714 – 1816 (see also ‘coronet 2)’, ‘inescutcheon’ and ‘royal standard’.

electorial cap - Royal standard 1801
The Royal Standard 1801 - 1816, UK (fotw)


EMBATTLED (or EMBATTLEMENT)
(adj) A heraldic term for where a division in the field of a banner of arms or shield, or its border, or the edge of an ordinary, is indented like a castle battlement - battled, battelly, crenelled, embattle, or kernelled (see also ‘armorial bearings’, ‘banner 1)’, ‘coat of arms 2)’, ‘ordinary’ and ‘shield’).

[Bauten Germany] [embattled shield] [embattled shield] Order of St. Joachim, Austria
Flag of Bautzen, Germany (fotw); embattled shields (CS); Flag of the Order of St Joachim, Austria (fotw)


EMBLEM
1) Generically, a design, whether heraldic or otherwise, that is symbolic of a country, entity or person.
2) Specifically, a design of heraldic or other symbols which is not a set of armorial bearings/coat of arms or a badge as defined herein. In a commercial context a logo is often used as an emblem (see also ‘anti-heraldry’, ‘badge’, ‘coat of arms’ ‘emblem, military and governmental’, 'emblem, state and national', 'charge', and ‘logo’).

Emblem, Military or Governmental
A design of heraldic or other symbols which is not a set of armorial bearings/coat of arms or a badge as defined herein, but which is used to denote a particular branch or division of the military, or a specific department within a government structure – but see ‘badge 3)’ (also ‘camp flag’, ‘coat of arms’, ‘emblem 2)’, ‘emblem, state or national', 'charge', ‘logo’, ‘military crest’ and ‘ship’s crest’).

[government and military emblem]
National Defence Force, RSA (fotw).


Emblem, State or National
A design of heraldic or other symbols which is not a set of armorial bearings/coat of arms or a badge as defined herein, but which is used to fulfil the function of a coat of arms in a national context. National emblems often epitomise the individuality and/or spirit of the state, and can be placed on a flag to distinguish it from others, which may be similar – as, for example, those on the civil ensign of Italy and national flag of Mexico (see also ‘badge’, ‘coat of arms’, ‘emblem 2)’ 'emblem, military or governmentall', and 'charge').

[state or national emblem]
National Emblem, Mexico (fotw).

Please note however, that the emblems of some countries such as those of Mexico (as shown above), or of Italy – whilst conforming to the definition as detailed herein – are officially described as “coats of arms”.


EMBOWED
A heraldic term for when the edge of an ordinary or a charge, an animal or of the arm of a man, or the division line on a shield, banner of arms or a flag is bent or bowed (see also ‘charge 1)’, ‘ordinary’ and ‘pointed’).

Arms - Piran, Slovenia Seftigen, Switzerland Arms - Velika, Croatia Flag - Velika, Croatia Dιmoret, Switzerland Bloke, Slovenia
Arms of Piran, Slovenia (fotw); Flag of Seftigen, Switzerland (fotw); Arms and Flag of Velika, Croatia; Flag of Dιmoret, Switzerland (fotw); Arms of Bloke, Slovenia (fotw)



EMBRACED
See ‘interlaced’.
EMBROIDER
(v) The use of needlework to create or enhance a design - employed especially on military colours and flags for indoor display (see also 'colour 2)', 'colours 2)’ and ‘indoor flag’).

EMPALE
See ‘impale’.

EMPHASIZED
See ‘garnished’.

ENAMELS
See ‘appendix III’.

ENCENIATOR
A medieval term, now obsolete, for a mounted standard bearer.

ENDORSE
See 'palet' in ‘Appendix VI’.

ENDORSED
See ‘addorsed’ and ‘appendix VI’.

ENFLAMED
See ‘inflamed’.

ENGRAILED
(adj) A heraldic term for where a division in the field of a banner of arms or shield, or the edge of an ordinary, is cut into a series of indented curves or half circles strung together - that is with the half-circles facing inward and points outward - ingrailed (see also ‘armorial bearings’, ‘banner 1)’, ‘coat of arms’, ‘invected’, ‘ordinary’ ‘shield’, and ‘scalloped’).

Genthod, Switzerland Vύcapy, Czech Republic
Flag of Genthod, Switzerland (fotw); Flag of Vύcapy, Czech Republic (fotw)


ENGRAILED FLY
(adj) A term for a form of flag, now obsolete, whose fly either came to a point or was extended by a central projection, but in which both sides form a concave arc (see also ‘ogival’).

Tunis 14th century Sibenik, Croatia 14th century
From left: 14th Century Flag of Tunis (fotw), 14th Century Flag of Sibenik, Croatia (Tomislav Todorovic)

Please note that this is not an established term, but has been introduced by the Editors since no established alternative could be found.


ENHANCED
A heraldic term for when the main ordinary on a shield, banner of arms or flag is placed in a higher position than its proper place - raised (see also ‘abased’ and ‘ordinary’).

enhanced examples

Please note however, that enhanced has a slightly different meaning when applied to the vexillological terms enhanced bend and enhanced bend sinister given below.


ENHANCED BEND
See ‘north-south diagonal’ (also ‘ascending diagonal’, ‘bend’ in Appendix VI, ‘descending diagonal’, 'east-west diagonal', ‘south-north diagonal’ and ‘west-east diagonal’).

[enhanced bend example]


ENHANCED BEND SINISTER
See ‘south-north diagonal’ (also ‘ascending diagonal’, ‘bend sinister’ in Appendix VI, ‘descending diagonal’, ‘east-west diagonal’, ‘north-south diagonal’ and ‘west east diagonal’).

[enhanced bend sinister example]


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