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Dictionary of Vexillology: H (Hafted - Hussar Cut)

Last modified: 2010-01-02 by phil nelson
Keywords: vexillological terms |
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HAFTED (or HAFT)
The heraldic term used when the handle of a hammer or an axe/mace (or of a similar tool/weapon) is of a different tincture to its head – but see ‘hilted’ (also ‘barbed’, ‘garnished’, ‘shafted’ and ‘tincture’).

Curtilles, Switzerland Lhota u Vsetνna, Czech Republic Jordanσw, Poland
Flag of Curtilles, Switzerland (fotw); Flag of Lhota u Vsetνna, Czech Republic (fotw); Flag of Jordanσw, Poland (Jarig Bakker)


HALF MAST (or HALF STAFF) A FLAG
(v & adj) To fly a flag at a point below its normal position, with the upper edge of the flag about a third of the length of the flag pole, or a flag width, from the truck, as a sign of mourning (see also ‘flag pole’, ‘full mast’, ‘length’ and ‘truck’).

Please note that a flag should, if the proper procedure is followed, be first raised right up to the truck before being lowered to its half-mast position, and raised once again to the truck before being lowered completely.


HALYARD
A length of thin rope or cable by means of which flags might be hoisted and lowered on a flag pole, mast or yardarm (see also ‘Appendix I’, ‘flag pole’, ‘mast’ and ‘yardarm’).

HANDLED (or HANDLE)
A term sometimes used to describe the hilt and pommel of a sword or dagger and the haft of a hammer, axe or other tool – but see ‘hafted’ and ‘hilted’ (also ‘shafted’.
HANDSCHYNIE
A Scottish term, now obsolete, for a miniature square banner.

HANDSIGNE
A 16th/17th Century variant spelling, now obsolete, of ensign – see ‘ensign 1)’ and ‘ensign 4)’ (also 'ancient 2)').
HANDWAVER (or HANDFLAG)
A small flag, usually made of either fabric or paper, fitted to a short stick and intended to be waved by hand (see also ‘flaglet’ and ‘table flag’).

HANGING FLAG
A long vertically orientated flag - originally of Germanic origin and now characteristic of both German speaking and other Central European countries - it is square-ended or swallow tailed, usually consists of the main flag charge and livery colours (with its first or main colour next to the head of the pole) and is specifically designed to be hung by its top edge from a horizontal pole attached to a building - not to be confused with the banner as defined herein and the similar (but usually shorter and more elaborately designed) gonfalon (see also ‘banner 2)’, ‘bannerhead’, ‘flag charge’, ‘gonfalon 1)’, ‘inner edge’, ‘livery colours’, ‘outer edge’, ‘outrigger flag’ and ‘vertically hoisted flag’).

hanging flag - Weilrod, Germany
The Flag and Hanging Flag of Weilrod, Germany (Jorge Majewski)

Please note, the Editors have adopted strict German vexillogical practice in that they have drawn a precisely defined distinction between a hanging flag and a banner, with such differences lying in both the method of suspension and in the orientation of the stripes, please note also however, that this may not necessarily apply in all cases.


HANSEATENKREUZ
See ‘Hanseatic cross’.

HANSEATIC (or HANSA) CROSS
The term – and a direct translation of the German Hanseatenkreuz - for a war war service medal issued by the former Hanseatic cities of Hamburg, Lόbeck and Bremen from 1915 - 1918, and which is sometimes used to describe a red, cross pattιe of Germanic, particularly (but not exclusively) Hanseatic origin – see ‘cross pattιe’ in ‘appendix VIII’ (also ‘cross 2)’ and ‘iron cross’).

Hanseatic crosses German Society for Rescuing the Shipwrecked Vegesack, Bremen, Germany
From left: The Hanseatic Crosses of Hamburg, Lόbeck and Bremen (Hanseatic Cities), Flag of the German Society for Rescuing the Shipwrecked (fotw), The Arms of Vegesack, Bremen, Germany (CS)

Please note that the above terms should only be used when the cross pattιe being described is red and/or is of a Hanseatic origin.

Also please note, information suggests that this term (describing a cross as defined above) dates from the early 19th century and the formation of volunteer corps from the former Hanseatic cities who took such a cross as one of their emblems.

Hamburg Citizen’s Militia 1814 – 1858
Flag of the Hamburg Citizen’s Militia 1814 – 1858 (Klaus-Michael Schneider)


HARNYSED (or HARNESSED)
See ‘‘armoured’’ and following note.

HATA-SASHIMONO
See ‘daimyo flags’.

HATCHING
1) In heraldry, a system of lines, dots and slashes used to indicate tinctures on a black and white illustration – the petra santa method (see also ‘appendix III’).
2) In vexillology, as 1) above but also used randomly to give a textural appearance to certain charges (see also ‘charge 1)’).

Please note with regard to 1) that this method of depicting tinctures on a black and white illustration was created in 1638, however, it is suggested that a glossary or dictionary of heraldry be consulted if full details are required.


HATCHMENT
See ‘achievement 2)’.

HAURIENT
See ‘appendix V’.

HEAD
See ‘hoist 1)’ (also ‘heading’).

HEAD, FLAGSTAFF
See ‘finial’.

HEADING (or HEADER)
A piece of heavy material, usually canvas or double-ply bunting, along the hoist edge of a flag, into which a rope is sewn as the hoistline, or into which grommets are inserted to facilitate the hoisting of a flag (see also ‘sleeve’, ‘hoistline’ and ‘grommet 1)’ and ‘hoist 1)’).

HEADQUARTERS FLAG
1) See ‘camp flag’.
2) In US military, naval and some other usage, the rank flag of a commanding officer when flown from their headquarters ashore – a designating (of headquarters) flag (see also ‘rank flag 1)’ and ‘flag of command’).

HEADSTICK
In largely naval usage a short piece of wood sewn into the top of a flag’s heading to allow the Inglefield clip to be attached about five cm from the top, thus permitting the flag to be hoisted right up to the truck and enabling the top hoist corner of the flag to remain straight and upright  – but see ‘frame 2)’ (also ‘Appendix I’, ‘Inglefield clip’ and ‘truck’). headstick example

HEIGHT
1) The vertical measurement of an emblem, shield, charge or badge when detailing the dimensions - but see ‘width 3)’ (also ‘dimensions’ and ‘width across’)
2) see ‘width 1)’

HELM (or HELMET)
The metal headpiece from a suit of armour placed above the shield in a coat of arms or set of armorial bearings (see also ‘Appendix IV’, ‘armorial bearings’, ‘coat of arms’, ‘crest 1)’, ‘shield’ and ‘wreath 2)’).

Please note that in heraldry the style and positioning of a helm varies according to the rank of the bearer, and it is suggested that a suitable glossary or dictionary of heraldry be consulted for full details.


HERALDIC BANNER
See ‘banner 1)’.

HERALDIC BEASTS
Animals, birds and mythological creatures used on flags and the shields of coats of arms - but see note below (also ‘supporters’).

Please note that it is beyond the scope of this work to list all the animals traditionally used in heraldry, and for these a suitable glossary or heraldic dictionary should be consulted, however, the basic attitudes in which all such animals may be found (or presented) on a shield or banner of arms are listed in Appendix V.


HERALDIC LILY
See ‘fleur-de-lis’.

HERALDIC STANDARD
See ‘standard 4)’ and ‘standard 5)’.

[Heraldic standard example]
Heraldic standard of the Master Gunner St James’ Park UK (Graham Bartram)


HERALDRY
The science concerned with the designing, interpretation, recording and blazoning of those armorial bearings and/or heraldic insignia that pertain to an individual, an institution or to a corporate entity (see also ‘anti-heraldry’, ‘armorial bearings’, ‘blazon’, ‘coat of arms 2)’, ‘insignia’ and ‘pre-heraldic’).

HILTED (or HILT)
The heraldic term used when the grip, pommel and cross/hand guard of a sword or dagger are of a different tincture to its blade – but see note below and ‘hafted’ (also ‘barbed’, ‘garnished’, ‘shafted’ and ‘tincture’).

Karelia, Finland Arms of Barilovic, Croatia Fabianki, Poland
Flag of Karelia, Finland (fotw); Arms of Barilovic, Croatia (fotw); Flag of Fabianki, Poland (fotw)

Please note that heraldic writers will sometimes blazon the hilt and the pommel (of a sword or dagger) separately when describing the charges on a coat of arms.


HINOMARU (or HINU MARU)
Literally “sun-disk” and the current national flag of Japan (see also ‘daimyo flags’ and ‘mon’).

hinomaru
National Flag of Japan (fotw)


HIS MAJESTY’S JACK
In English RN usage now obsolete, an official term for the 1606 pattern union flag when flown as a naval jack, and in use from c1640 – c1690 – the king’s jack or the jack – but see ‘British flag’ (also ‘interlaced’, ‘naval jack’ under ‘jack’, ‘James Union’ and ‘union jack 2)’).
HISSFLAGGE (or HISSFAHNE)
See ‘hoisted flag’.

HOCHFLAGGE (HOCHFORMATFLAGGE or HOCHFORMATFAHNE)
See ‘vertically hoisted flag’.

HOIST
1) That edge or section of a flag, which lies next to the flagpole, mast or staff – the distance line (see also ‘Appendix I, ‘fly’, ‘heading’, ‘obverse’ and ‘reverse’).
2) A group of signal flags hoisted together - a hoist of flags, signal group or signal hoist (see also ‘call sign hoist’, ‘International Code of Signal Flags’, ‘making her number’ and ‘signal flag’).
3) (v) The act of raising a flag.
4) The width of a flag (see also ‘width’).

HOIST-DIAGONAL
A direct translation of the Dutch term hijsdiagonaal but see ‘per bend’ and ‘descending diagonal 2)’.

HOIST-TRIANGLE (or HOISTTRIANGLE)
The term – and a direct translation of the Dutch hijsdriehoek - sometimes used to describe a triangular charge based on the hoist – a simple triangle, or (inaccurately) a simple pile/triangle throughout – but see ‘pile 1)’ and ‘triangle 1)’.

Puerto Rico
Flag of Puerto Rico (fotw)


HOIST OF FLAGS
See ‘hoist 2)’ (also ‘International Code of Signal Flags’ and ‘signal flag’).

HOISTED (or HOISTING) FLAG
A term – and a direct translation of the German “hissflagge” or “hissfahne” used in German language vexillology - to describe a conventional flag (that is a flag generally longer than it is wide) which is hoisted on a flagpole in the normal way, but a term that is only employed when such a flag is presented (either visually or in discussion) with another - such as a banner, gonfalon or hanging flag - which is designed to be hung from a cross bar or is otherwise vertically orientated (see also ‘banner 2), ‘cross bar’, ‘flag 1)’, ‘gonfalon 1)’, ‘hanging flag’, ‘outrigger flag’ and ‘vertically hoisted flag’).

HOISTLINE (or HOIST LINE)
A piece of rope sewn into the heading of a flag to which the toggle (at the top of the heading) and becket (or eye splice) in the other end below the flag, or Inglefield clips (at both ends) are attached and by means of which the flag is bent on (or attached) to the halyard (see also ‘Appendix I’, ‘becket’, ‘bend on’, ‘eye splice’, ‘halyard’, ‘toggle’, and ‘Inglefield clips’).

Please note that the hoistline is described as a distance line in US military specifications.


HOLIDAY COLOURS (or COLORS)
In US naval usage, a larger than usual set of colours flown by a vessel on holidays and other special occasions (see also ‘ceremonial ensign’, ‘garrison flag’ and ‘Sunday ensign’).

HOLY LAMB
See ‘agnus dei’

HOMEWARD BOUND PENNANT
See ‘paying off pennant’.

HONOUR (or HONOR) BANNER
The term – and a direct translation of the German Ehrenbanner – for those flags (usually decorated with a fringe) that were awarded to various non-military organizations for excellent performance by the former GDR and possibly other Communist bloc countries – but see ‘award flag’.

HONOUR (or HONOR) ENSIGN
See ‘ensign of honour’.

HONOUR (or HONOR) FLAG
1) The flag, now obsolete, that was selected to represent those nations which were working towards world peace prior to the foundation of the United Nations Organization, and in official/semi-official use (particularly, but not exclusively, in the USA) from 1943 to c1948 - the four freedoms flag.
2) One of the flags presented in 1832 by the government of Belgium to honour those municipalities who had made a significant contribution towards the independence of that country.
3) See ‘flag of honour’.

[Honor flag - proposed UN flag] 1832 Honour Flag
From left: The Honour Flag (fotw); The Honour Flag 1832 (CS)

Please note that the red bars – optionally blue or green and possibly yellow – were said to represent the four freedoms (freedom of speech and expression, freedom of every person to worship God in his own way, freedom from want and freedom from fear) for which the Second World War was being fought, and that the alternative name of four freedoms flag was in occasional use until 1945.


HONOUR (or HONOR) JACK
See ‘jack of honour’.

HONOUR (or HONOR) POINT
1) On flags, originally a US term for that position on a flag where the colour or charge with the greatest or highest symbolism is placed, almost always the upper canton – point of honour sometimes called the place of honour (see also ‘canton 1)’, ‘quarter 1)’ and ‘union’).
2) In heraldry, a point on the shield slightly above the exact centre - the fesse- or fess-point (see also ‘shield’).

Please note with regard to 1), not to be confused with the position of honour - see ‘position of honour’.


HONOUR (or HONOR) POSITION
See ‘position of honour’.

HONOURABLE ORDINARIES
See ‘ordinary’.

HOOCH FLAG
In US military usage (particularly during the Vietnam War) the colloquial term for a small, entirely unofficial, company or unit flag.

HOOKED-CROSS
See ‘swastika’.

HORIZONTAL BICOLOUR
See ‘bicolour 1)’ (also ‘bicolour 2)’).

Niederφsterreich, Austria
Civil Flag of Niederφsterreich, Austria (fotw)


HORIZONTAL CHEVRON
See ‘chevron’.

HORIZONTAL MERIDIAN (or MEDIAN)
See ‘meridian’.

HORIZONTAL MULTI-STRIPE
See ‘multi-stripe 2)’.

HORNED
See ‘attired’.

HORSETAIL
A decoration for military flags, especially in China where it is usually red; made of real or simulated horsehair and is almost certainly descended from a Mongolian vexilloid (see also ‘tugh 1)’).

Please note that the standards of some former French cavalry units (notably the Spahis originally raised in North Africa) were also decorated by horsetails - see ‘toug’.


HORSETAIL STANDARD
See ‘tugh 1)’.

HOUSE FLAG (or PENNANT)
1) The distinguishing flag or pennant of a merchant marine company flown at sea by ships owned or managed by that company, and from their headquarters on shore – a shipping or shipping company house flag (see also ‘flags and funnels’, ‘logo’ and ‘pennant 2)’).
2) See ‘corporate flag’.
3) The personal flag of the owner of a pleasure vessel or home – a private signal (see also ‘personal flag 2)’).
4) See ‘battle flag 2)’.

[houseflag example] [houseflag example]
From left: Dominion Shipping Company, UK (fotw); White Star Line, UK (fotw)


HOUSEWIMPEL
See ‘house flag 1)’ above.

Please note that the correct term in English language vexillology is house pennant - see ‘wimpel’ and following note.


HUSSAR CUT
A variation of the swallow-tail in which the cut in the fly of the flag is shaped by several curves, and was formerly typical of the flags used by German cavalry regiments (see also ‘descate’, ‘palm’, ‘guidon 2)’, ‘indentation(s)’ and ‘swallow-tail(ed)’).

[Hussar cut example]
West Prussian Dragoon Regiment No. 4 c1820


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